Posted by: Maureen Flynn-Burhoe | November 14, 2009

Layli and Majnun: A Timeline

Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet inspired by Nizami’s Layli and Majnun

XXXX Arab and Habib folklore of Layla and Majnun transmitting through oral tradition of story-telling.

XXXX Latin version of Layla and Majnun

c. 550 BCE The Temple of Artemis was completed in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus, Anatolia.

547 BCE The Greek city of Ephesus was conquered by the Persians under Cyrus the Great who incorporated the city along with other the Greek cities of Asia Minor into the Achaemenid Empire.

c. 100 AD Xenophon of Ephesus, Greece (fl. 2nd century–3rd century?) produced one of the earliest novels entitled Ephesian Tale of Anthia and Habrocomes . It is considered by many to be the one of the sources for Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. It was printed in 1726 and translated into English the following year. Sixteen-year-old Habrocomes and 14-year-old Anthia from Ephesus met at the festival of Artemis. Their parents attempt to send them to Egypt for their own protection but on the way they are captured by pirates and they are separated. In the long, confusing story the couple are both enslaved and suffer greatly at the hands of their captors. Their enforced journeys lead them to Italy, Syria, Rhodes, Phoenicia, Anatolia, and finally home. There are many similarities between this story and Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet.” Note: Xenophon of Ephesus is not the Athenian historian and soldier Xenophon. See  O’Sullivan (1995) The ancient novel.

1037-1194 Seljuks/Saljuqs Dynasty; Seljuks/Saljuqs Dynasty of Rum (Byzantium) 11th –14th C During the 12th C the Seljuks/Saljuqs empire was dividedinto three main groups: a western group comprising Anatolia, a central group covering Syria and Iraq, and an eastern group including Iran and Central Asia.

1037-1171 the Saldjuk period: “The most likely candidate to represent the largely vanished art of Saldjuk book painting is the verse romance Warka wa Gulshah, [] written in Persian by the poet Ayyuki and signed by the painter ‘Abd al-Mu’min al-Khuyi. This suggests a provenance in north-west Persia, but Anatolia is a distinct possibility too. The manuscript (in the Topkapi Sarayi library in Istanbul) has 70 brightly coloured illustrations in strip format against a plain coloured or patterned ground, with figural types of the kind familiar in mina’i pottery, but with an unexpected additional feature: obtrusive animals which have been shown in Daneshvari to have iconographic significance, for example as symbolic and prophetic references to the action. A fragment of al-Sufi’s Fixed stars in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (ms. Or. 133), undated and unprovenanced but probably of the 13th century, might be of Persian origin. But for all the paucity of surviving material, the clear dependence of both fine ceramics and fine metalwork on manuscript painting, and illumination shows clearly enough the high profile which the arts of the book enjoyed in the Saldjuk period. And book painting in Mesopotamia after the fall of the Saldjuk dynasty often has marked Persian features, a factor which suggests the existence of an earlier pan-Saldjuk school of painting in which distinctions between Irak and Persia were perhaps not very significant (Singh 2002:1004)”  Nizami’s famous adaption of the well-known story of Layli and Majnun (1192), was similar to the Arab poet’s ʿAyyūḳī’s – Ayyuki – love story entitled Warḳa u Gulshāh which was written in Farsi.  (Singh 2002:1004) noted that  the “verse romance Warka wa Gulshah, written in Persian by the poet Ayyuki and signed by the painter ‘Abd al-Mu’min al-Khuyi [is] the most likely candidate to represent the largely vanished art of Saldjuk book painting.”

Niẓāmī states in the introduction to his poem that he accepted the assignment with some hesitation. At first, he doubted whether this tale of madness and wanderings through the wilderness would be suitable for a royal court (ed. Moscow 1965, 41 ff.). He adapted the disconnected stories to fit the requirements of a Persian romance. …In some respects, the Bedouin setting of the original has been changed under the influence of urban conditions more familiar to the poet and his audience: the young lovers become acquainted at school; the generous Nawfal is a prince in the Iranian style rather than an Arab official. Niẓāmī added a second pair of lovers, Zayn and Zaynab, in whom the love between the main characters is reflected. It is Zayn who in a dream sees Madjnūn and Laylī united in paradise at the end of the romance (Pellat, Ch et al. 2009. Brill Online.)”

1192 Nizami wrote a his famous adaption of Layli o Majnun لیلی و مجنون in Farsi. “In his adaptation, the young lovers become acquainted at school and desperately fall in love. However, they cannot see each other because of a family feud, and Layli’s family arranges for her to marry another man. It is a tragic story of undying love.” Seyed-Gohrab, Ali Asghar. 2003-06. “Layli and Majnun: Madness and Mystic Longing.” Brill Studies in Middle Eastern Literature,  pp 76-77. excerpt: “Although Majnun was to some extent a popular figure before Nizami’s time, his popularity increased dramatically after the appearance of Nizami’s romance. By collecting information from both secular and mystical sources about Majnun, Nizami portrayed such a vivid picture of this legendary lover that all subsequent poets were inspired by him, many of them imitated him and wrote their own versions of the romance. As we shall see in the following chapters, the poet uses various characteristics deriving from ‘Udhrite love poetry and weaves them into his own Persian culture. In other words, Nizami Persianises the poem by adding several techniques borrowed from the Persian epic tradition, such as the portrayal of characters, the relationship between characters, description of time and setting, etc (Seyed-Gohrab 2003-06).”

A story Of Arabic origin[29], the poem was based on the popular Arab legend of ill-starred lovers: the poet Qays falls in love with his cousin Layla, but is prevented from marrying her by Layla’s father. Layla’s father forbids contact with Qays and Qays becomes obsessed and starts singing of his love for Layla in public. The obsession becomes so severe that he sees and evaluates everything in terms of Layla; hence his sobriquet “the possessed” (Majnun)[29]. Realizing that cannot obtain union even when other people intercede for him, he leaves society and roams naked in the desert among the beasts. However the image of Layla was so ingrained in him that he cannot eat or sleep. His only activity becomes composing poetry of longing for Layla[29]. Meanwhile Layla is married against her will, but she guards her virginity by resisting the advances of her husband. Arranging a secret meeting with Majnun, they meet, but have no physical contact. Rather they recite poetry to each other from a distance. Layla’s husband dies eventually which removes the legal obstacles to an illicit union. However Majnun is so focused on the ideal picture of Layla in his mind that he had fled to the desert. Layla dies out of grief and is buried in her bridal dress. Hearing this news, Majun rushes to her grave where he instantly dies. They are buried side by side and their grave becomes a site of pilgrimage. Someone dreams that in Paradise they are united and live as a king and queen[29]. Nezami composed his romance at the request of the Shirvanshah Akhsatan. Initially, he doubted that this simple story about the agony and pain of an Arab boy wandering in rough mountains and burning deserts would be a suitable subject for royal court poetry and his cultured audience[29]. It was his son who persuaded him to undertake the project, saying: “wherever tales of love are read, this will add spice to them”[29]. Nezami used many Arabic anecdotes in the story but also adds a strong Persian flavor to the legend[29]. He adapted the disconnected stories about Majnun to fit the requirement of a Persian romance[30]. “The theme was chosen for the first time as the subject of a Persian narrative poem, but the precedent of the treatment of a similar subject of Arabic origin existed in ʿAyyūḳī’s Warḳa u Gulshāh. Niẓāmī states in the introduction to his poem that he accepted the assignment with some hesitation. At first, he doubted whether this tale of madness and wanderings through the wilderness would be suitable for a royal court (ed. Moscow 1965, 41 ff.). He adapted the disconnected stories to fit the requirements of a Persian romance. …In some respects, the Bedouin setting of the original has been changed under the influence of urban conditions more familiar to the poet and his audience: the young lovers become acquainted at school; the generous Nawfal is a prince in the Iranian style rather than an Arab official. Niẓāmī added a second pair of lovers, Zayn and Zaynab, in whom the love between the main characters is reflected. It is Zayn who in a dream sees Madjnūn and Laylī united in paradise at the end of the romance (Pellat, Ch et al. 2009. Brill Online.)”

1100 Persian mystic, Faridu’ud-Din Attar’s (1145/46-1221) allegory “The Conference of the Birds” which I believe is also called Mantiqu’t-Tayr Language of the Birds. This work may have inspired Herman Hesse’s “Journey to the East.” It describes the seeker’s parallel journey to self-discovery, self-actualization, self-realization through the elusive search for God.

1103 Franks massacred the entire population of Saruj, a town in northern Syria. The folk tradition included a hero called Abu Zayd from Saruj, a town in northern Syria, as told by al-Harith.

1200? Attar is said to have met Jalálu’d-Dín Rúmí (1207-1273 A.D.) when the latter was still a child and enkindled in him him with the insatiable longing for the illusive and unknowable divine essence of all things.

1221-04 `Attar was killed and died in the city where he was born when the Mongols attacked Nishabur.

1476 Masuccio Salernitano’s Cinquante Novelle – Il Novellino “includes the story of Mariotto and Giannozza of Sienna, who are secretly married by a Friar, after which Mariotto quarrels with a prominent citizen, kills him and is exiled to Alexandria. Giannozza’s father chooses a husband for her but to avoid marriage, Giannozza gets a sleeping potion from the Friar, sends word to her husband of what’s going to happen, is buried, taken from the tomb by the Friar, and sets sails for Alexandria. By a cruel twist of fate, the messenger carrying her letter is captured by pirates and Mariotto, hearing she has died, returns to Sienna disguised as a pilgrim. Trying to open the tomb, he is seized and beheaded. Giannozza makes her way home to Sienna and dies in a convent. Masuccio Salernitano’s Cinquante Novelle of 1476 tells of the romance between Mariotto and Gianozza. The lovers are secretly married by a friar; Mariotto is banished for killing another citizen; Gianozza’s father chooses a husband for her and she goes to the friar for help. He gives her a sleeping potion, which she drinks; she appears to be dead and is entombed. Although she has sent a note to her husband, he does not receive it. Anguished by reports of his wife’s death, Mariotto rushes home, only to be arrested at her tomb and put to death. Gianozza subsequently dies of grief.” edit

1536 AD (942) Fuzûlî (c. 1483 – 1556) wrote his adaptation of the story, Dâstân-ı Leylî vü Mecnûn داستان ليلى و مجنون; “The Epic of Layla and Majnun” in Azerbaijani Turkish. Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzûlî (d. 1483 Hilla – ö. 1556 Kerbela ya da Bağdat), Fuzûlî, فضولی, Fużūlī (فضولی) was the pen name of the poet Muhammad bin Suleyman (محمد بن سليما]” “Fożūlī’s fame, however, rests above all on two of his Turkish works, the Dīvān(containing several panegyrics, robāʿīs, and three hundred ḡazals; numerous editions, including A. Gölpınarlı, Istanbul, 1948, 2nd ed., 1961) and especially his Laylā wa Majnūn (ed. N. H. Onan as Leylâ vü Mecnûn, Istanbul, 1935; ed. H. Ayan, Istanbul, 1981; ed. M. Doğan, Istanbul, 1996; tr. S. Huri as Leyla and Mejnûn by Fuzûlî, London, 1970). Laylā wa Majnūn, a work in 3096 bayts, was dedicated to Oways Pasha, the Ottoman governor of Baghdad. The problem of establishing the date of its composition, 942/1536, can be regarded as solved (Sohrweide, p. 227, no. 248); as in many other cases, the date had to be reconstructed from internal evidence (the dedication) while those proposed on the basis of chronograms remain doubtful. The poem represents the culmination of the Turkish maṯnawī tradition in that it raised the personal and human love-tragedy to the plane of mystical longing and ethereal aspiration (Dankoff). Fożūlī’s avowed model for the poem is Neẓāmī’s Laylī o Majnūn; he picks up the thread of Neẓāmī’s narrative at the point where Majnūn makes the pilgrimage to Mecca, and from then on follows Neẓāmī using the same hazaj meter (Bombaci, 1970, pp. 86-87). Unlike Neẓāmī, however, Fożūlī inserts several lyric poems (twenty-twoḡazals, two morabbaʿs, and two monājāts) which, while integrated harmoniously into the narrative, at the same time take on a life of their own (Dankoff). Another, undisclosed, model for the poem is the popular narrative on the same theme by ʿAbd-Allāh Hātefī (q.v.; Bombaci, 1969, pp. 246-52; idem, 1970, pp. 84-114).” http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v10f2/v10f211.html

1535 Luigi da Porto published Istoria Novellamente Ritrovata di due Nobili Amanti. “The story is set in Verona, the lovers, Romeo and Giulietta, are aristocrats. Their families – the Montecchi and the Cappelletti – are sworn enemies. Romeo goes disguised to a Carnival ball at the Cappelletti’s house, hoping to see the object of his unrequited love. There, Giulietta falls in love with him at first sight, he abandons his pursuit of unrequited love and later climbs up to Giulietta’s balcony to woo her. Hoping their union will reconcile the two houses, they go to a Franciscan Friar, Lorenzo, who marries them hoping that peace will follow. He is wrong. At the end of the story, Giulietta awakes before Romeo dies and so they have the chance to speak to each other. Giulietta ‘drew in her breath and held it long, and then, uttering a great cry, fell dead on the corpse of Romeo’ (Symon). ” . “The first and most influential is Luigi da Porto’s 1530 version. In it, he renames the lovers Romeo Montecchi and Giulietta Capelletti; he calls the friar Lorenzo. Da Porto introduces a character called Marcuccio, a friend of Romeo’s (noted only for his icy hands); and identifies the man whom Romeo kills as Theobaldo Capelletti. Da Porto’s story adds the ball, the balcony scene, and the lovers’ double suicide at Giulietta’s tomb—which Giulietta accomplishes by holding her breath!” http://www.chicagoshakes.com/main.taf?p=2,17,8,1,6 It was commonly though that Felice Romani fashioned Bellini’s libretto “I Capuleti ed i Montecchi (1820)” after Shakespeare’s play, but it was based on Romani’s own musical tragedy entitled Giulietta e Romeo which was produced at Milan (1825). Felice Romano’s widow and biographer Emilia Branca suggested Matteo Bandello’s retelling of the story as the main source . . . p.1  Shakespeare’s own sources, Luigi da Porto’s Istoria Novellamente Ritrovata di due Nobili Amanti (Venice 1535) and its several Italian, French and English reincarnations (Collins, Michael. 1982).

1554 “Matteo Bandello’s 1554 Novelle gave the Nurse the significant part that she plays in Shakespeare’s retelling” http://www.chicagoshakes.com/main.taf?p=2,17,8,1,6

1559 Pierre Boiastuau adapted Matteo Bandello’s novella of 1554 and translated it from Italian into French. Boiastuau altered the events at this point and his Romeo dies before Juliet wakes up. It was Boiastuau’s account that was translated into English in 1567 by William Painter and that formed the basis for Brooke’s The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet (1562), Shakespeare’s primary source for the play (Holland, Peter. 2000. Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. Oxford University Press. p. xxxii). “Pierre Boiastuau had Romeo go to the Capulets’ ball in hopes of seeing his unrequited love, whom Shakespeare would later call Rosaline. Boiastuau was the first to write of Juliet’s grief when her husband murders her cousin Tybalt, and his version was the first in which the character of the Apothecary appears” http://www.chicagoshakes.com/main.taf?p=2,17,8,1,6

1600 Habib Allah painted “The Concourse of the Birds” a reproduction of which is now available at the Wikimedia Commons. The original is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This is an illustration of the Persian mystic, Faridu’ud-Din Attar’s allegory “The Conference of the Birds” which I believe is also called Mantiqu’t-Tayr Language of the Birds. This work may have inspired Herman Hesse’s “Journey to the East.” It describes the seeker’s parallel journey to self-discovery, self-actualization, self-realization through the elusive search for God.

1562 Arthur Brooke wrote his long poem entitled “The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet” which text is a loose translation of Boiastuau (Symon). “Arthur Brooke’s poem The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet, published in 1564, adheres to the framework constructed in the previous stories, filling it in a bit with more developed characters and relationships. He adds the character of Benvolio, and concentrates on deepening relationships, such as Juliet’s to her father, and the Nurse’s to the lovers. Brooke’s poem slightly expands the role of Mercutio, paving the way for Shakespeare to develop one of his most fascinating characters. About 35 years later, c.1597, William Shakespeare would write the version of Romeo and Juliet that today remains the best known and loved.” http://www.chicagoshakes.com/main.taf?p=2,17,8,1,6

1566 William Painter translated Boiastuau into English under the title Palace of Pleasure. This was the version that formed the base for Brooke’s poem.

c. 1597 Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. The Shakespearean stage was a “rostrum for recitation.” The 16th century audience already knew Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet as the lovers’ story.

1726 Ephesiaca, a 5th-century love story was printed

1727 Ephesiaca, a 5th-century love story was translated into English.

1748 In David Garrick’s performance of Romeo and Juliet changes were introduced to Shakespeare’s original play creating more dramatic tension. The timing of Juliet’s awakening and Romeo’s dying are shifted so the anguish is even more exaggerated.

19th century Ahmed Shawqi wrote a poetic play about the tragedy. Qay’s lines from the play are sometimes confused with his actual poems. The play is considered one of the best in modern Arab poetry.

1860 Bahá’u’lláh wrote Seven Valleys – Haft-Vádí describing the spiritual journey of the soul passing through different stages, from this world to other realms which are closer to God, as first described by the 12th Century Sufi poet Attar in his Conference of the Birds. In the introduction, Bahá’u’lláh says “Some have called these Seven Valleys, and others, Seven Cities.” The stages are accomplished in order, and the goal of the journey is to follow “the Right Path”, “abandon the drop of life and come to the sea of the Life-Bestower”, and “gaze on the Beloved”.

1867 Thomas Chenery translated The Assemblies of Al-Hariri. by Al-Hariri of Basra.

1908-01-25 The renowned Azerbaijani composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov made Fuzûlî’s adaptation of Layli and Majnun into an opera. It was staged in Baku on January 25, 1908.

1927 German author Hermann Hesse published his short novel entitled “Die Morgenlandfahrt”, in English Journey to the East. Hesse’s Journey to the East may have been inspired by Faridu’ud-Din Attar’s “The Conference of the Birds” (1100s) In the Herman Hesse short novel a League from the West undertook a pilgrimage to the East in search of The Truth. Their imaginary and real journeys traverse space and time. In the end the narrator discovers that he and the other searchers have been put through a series of challenges to test their faith.

1966 The publication of Dr. Rudolf Gelpke’s English translation and editing  The Story of Layla and Majnun by Nizami, into an English version in collaboration with E. Mattin and G. Hill Omega Publications. Many later poets have imitated Nizami’s work, even if they could not equal and certainly not surpass it; Persians, Turks, Indians, to name only the most important ones. The Persian scholar Hekmat has listed not less than forty Persians and thirteen Turkish versions of Layli and Majnun.[13]

A comprehensive analysis in English containing partial translations of Nezami’s romance Layla and Majnun examining key themes such as chastity, constancy and suffering through an analysis of the main characters was recently accomplished by Ali Asghar Seyed-Gohrab[32].

2000. Romeo and Juliet before Shakespeare: four early stories of star-crossed love. Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance studies, 2000) contains four early versions of the Romeo and Juliet story: Mariotto and Ganozza by Masuccio Salernitano, A tale about two noble lovers by Luigi da Porto, The unfortunate death of two most wrethched lovers by Matteo Bandello and Of two lovers by Pierre Boaistuau.

2003 Ali Asghar Seyed-Gohrab, “Layli and Majnun: Madness and Mystic Longing” Brill Studies in Middle Eastern literature, Jun 2003, pg 76-77. excerpt: Although Majnun was to some extent a popular figure before Nizami’s time, his popularity increased dramatically after the appearance of Nizami’s romance. By collecting information from both secular and mystical sources about Majnun, Nizami portrayed such a vivid picture of this legendary lover that all subsequent poets were inspired by him, many of them imitated him and wrote their own versions of the romance. As we shall see in the following chapters, the poet uses various characteristics deriving from ‘Udhrite love poetry and weaves them into his own Persian culture. In other words, Nizami Persianises the poem by adding several techniques borrowed from the Persian epic tradition, such as the portrayal of characters, the relationship between characters, description of time and setting, etc”

Who’s Who

Abū Hamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm (Persian: ابو حمید ابن ابوبکر ابراهیم) (born 1145-46 in Nishapur Iran – died c. 1221), much better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn (فریدالدین) and ‘Attār (عطار – the pharmacist), was a Persian Muslim poet, theoretician of Sufism, and hagiographer from Nīshāpūr who left an everlasting influence on Persian poetry and Sufism.

Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzûlî (d. 1483 Hilla – ö. 1556 Kerbela ya da Bağdat), Fuzûlî, فضولی, Fużūlī (فضولی) was the pen name of the poet Muhammad bin Suleyman (محمد بن سليمان) (c. 1483 – 1556). He is one of the greatest contributors to the Dîvân tradition of Turkish literature,[1] Fuzûlî wrote his collected poems (dîvân) in three different languages: Azerbaijani Turkish, Persian, and Arabic. Although his Turkish works are written in Azerbaijani, he knew both the Ottoman and the Chagatai Turkish literary traditions as well. He was also very able in mathematics and astronomy.[2]” He wrote Dâstân-ı Leylî vü Mecnûn (داستان ليلى و مجنون; “The Epic of Layla and Majnun”) in Azerbaijani Turkish in wiki

Nezāmi-ye Ganjavi (Persian: نظامی گنجوی; Kurdish: Nîzamî Gencewî, نیزامی گه‌نجه‌وی; Azerbaijani: Nizami Gəncəvi, نظامی گنجوی ;‎ 1141 to 1209), or Nezāmi (Persian:نظامی), whose formal name was Niżām ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakī ibn-Mu‘ayyad, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature[1], who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic[2][3]. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan[4]Azerbaijan[5]Iran[4], andTajikistan[4]. wiki

The Persian scholar Hekmat has listed not less than forty Persians and thirteen Turkish versions of Layli and Majnun.[13]

Ali Asghar Seyed-Gohrab, “Layli and Majnun: Madness and Mystic Longing” Brill Studies in Middle Eastern literature, Jun 2003, pg 76-77. excerpt: Although Majnun was to some extent a popular figure before Nizami’s time, his popularity increased dramatically after the appearance of Nizami’s romance. By collecting information from both secular and mystical sources about Majnun, Nizami portrayed such a vivid picture of this legendary lover that all subsequent poets were inspired by him, many of them imitated him and wrote their own versions of the romance. As we shall see in the following chapters, the poet uses various characteristics deriving from ‘Udhrite love poetry and weaves them into his own Persian culture. In other words, Nizami Persianises the poem by adding several techniques borrowed from the Persian epic tradition, such as the portrayal of characters, the relationship between characters, description of time and setting, etc.

Mabillard, Amanda B.A. (Honors), from 1999-2003 (last updated 08/28/2005 compiled information for a site http://www.shakespeare-online.com/ intended to provide comprehensive and accurate information about the Bard. She also wrote the Guide to Shakespeare for About, Inc., A part of The New York Times Company, where she published her original articles on Shakespeare’s life and works. Her site was listed as a Wiki source, however the link to her article, “An Analysis of Shakespeare’s Sources for Romeo and Juliet” is a deadlink.

Roz Symon is RSC’s Play Guide Writer and Editor. Royal Shakespeare Company is a new Romeo and Juliet Play Guide, a unique resource offering readers detailed insights to the process of theatre. Through extracts from rehearsal diaries and a series of interviews with directors, designers and actors, you can learn more about Peter Gill’s production of Romeo and Juliet [RSC 2004-5] and more about the play in general. The Guide also offers practical, entertaining ways for students, teachers and life-long learners to explore a 400-year old performance text. The Guide includes photographs of past productions, film versions of the play, the Royal Shakespeare Company rehearsal process, Shakespeare’s life and times, stage fighting or design issues. His site was listed as a Wiki source.

Notes

Aleppo (Halab in Arabic): Syria’s second city located on the river Qoueiq in north-west Syria

Webliography and Bibliography

Romeo and Juliet before Shakespeare: four early stories of star-crossed love. Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance studies, 2000) contains four early versions of the Romeo and Juliet story: Mariotto and Ganozzaby Masuccio Salernitano, A tale about two noble lovers by Luigi da Porto, The unfortunate death of two most wretched lovers by Matteo Bandello and Of two lovers by Pierre Boaistuau.

ArRalm. “The Original Legend in Arabic Literature” ArtArena. Accessed January 26, 2008.

Branca, Emilia. 1882. Felice Romani ed i più riputati maestri di musica del suo tempo: cenni …

Chenery, Thomas, Trans. 1867. The Assemblies of Al-Hariri. Williams and Norgate: London and Edinburgh.

Coker, J. T. 2000. “Follow Your Heart: The Story of Layla and Majnun.” Sunrise. June/July. Theosophical University Press.

Collins, Michael. 1982. “The Literary Background of Bellini’s I Capuleti ed i Montecchi.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 35:3:532-538. University of California Press on behalf of the American Musicological Society. http://www.jstor.org/stable/830986
Collins argued that Bellini’s inspiration for his I Capuleti ed i Montecchi was not Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet as was commonly thought, but

Collins, Michael. 1982. “The Literary Background of Bellini’s I Capuleti ed i Montecchi.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 35:3:532-538 University of California Press on behalf of the American Musicological Society. http://www.jstor.org/stable/830986

Fuzulî. Leylâ ve Mecnun. Ed. Muhammet Nur Doğan. ISBN 975-08-0198-9.

Ḥarīrī. The assemblies of al-Harīri: translated from the Arabic, with an …, Volume 9

Holland, Peter. Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare,

Levenson, Jill L. 1984. “Romeo and Juliet before Shakespeare.” Studies in Philology. 81: 3:325-347. University of North Carolina Press. Summer.  http://www.jstor.org/stable/4174179

Mabillard, Amanda. 2007. “An Analysis of Shakespeare’s Sources for Romeo and Juliet”. Shakespeare Online. Unable to access January 26, 2008.

O’Sullivan, J. N. 1995. Xenophon of Ephesus: His Compositional Technique and the Birth of the Novel. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Pellat, Ch; van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Excerpts: “The theme was chosen for the first time as the subject of a Persian narrative poem, but the precedent of the treatment of a similar subject of Arabic origin existed in ʿAyyūḳī’s Warḳa u Gulshāh. Niẓāmī states in the introduction to his poem that he accepted the assignment with some hesitation. At first, he doubted whether this tale of madness and wanderings through the wilderness would be suitable for a royal court (ed. Moscow 1965, 41 ff.). He adapted the disconnected stories to fit the requirements of a Persian romance. …In some respects, the Bedouin setting of the original has been changed under the influence of urban conditions more familiar to the poet and his audience: the young lovers become acquainted at school; the generous Nawfal is a prince in the Iranian style rather than an Arab official. Niẓāmī added a second pair of lovers, Zayn and Zaynab, in whom the love between the main characters is reflected. It is Zayn who in a dream sees Madjnūn and Laylī united in paradise at the end of the romance (Pellat, Ch et al. 2009. Brill Online.)”

Perlm. “Layli and Madjnun in Persian Literature” >> ArtArena. Accessed January 26, 2008.

Rabbani, Faraz. 2006. “Loss of Meaning.” Islamica Magazine. No. 15.

Seyed-Gohrab, Ali Asghar. 2003-06. “Layli and Majnun: Madness and Mystic Longing.” Brill Studies in Middle Eastern Literature,  pp 76-77. excerpt: “Although Majnun was to some extent a popular figure before Nizami’s time, his popularity increased dramatically after the appearance of Nizami’s romance. By collecting information from both secular and mystical sources about Majnun, Nizami portrayed such a vivid picture of this legendary lover that all subsequent poets were inspired by him, many of them imitated him and wrote their own versions of the romance. As we shall see in the following chapters, the poet uses various characteristics deriving from ‘Udhrite love poetry and weaves them into his own Persian culture. In other words, Nizami Persianises the poem by adding several techniques borrowed from the Persian epic tradition, such as the portrayal of characters, the relationship between characters, description of time and setting, etc.”

Schmeling, Gareth. 1996. “O’Sullivan, J. N. 1995. Xenophon of Ephesus: His Compositional Technique and the Birth of the Novel. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter (review).” American Journal of Philology. 117: 4:660-663. Whole Number: 468. Winter.

Singh,  Nagendra Kr. 2002. Ed International encyclopaedia of Islamic dynasties. J. L. Kumar: New Delhi. “The most likely candidate to represent the largely vanished art of Saldjuk book painting is the verse romance Warka wa Gulshah, written in Persian by the poet Ayyuki and signed by the painter ‘Abd al-Mu’min al-Khuyi. This suggests a provenance in north-west Persia, but Anatolia is a distinct possibility too. The manuscript (in the Topkapi Sarayi library in Istanbul) has 70 brightly coloured illustrations in strip format against a plain coloured or patterned ground, with figural types of the kind familiar in mina’i pottery, but with an unexpected additional feature: obtrusive animals which have been shown in Daneshvari to have iconographic significance, for example as symbolic and prophetic references to the action. A fragment of al-Sufi’s Fixed stars in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (ms. Or. 133), undated and unprovenanced but probably of the 13th century, might be of Persian origin.But for all the paucity of surviving material, the clear dependence of both fine ceramics and fine metalwork on manuscript painting, and illumination shows clearly enough the high profile which the arts of the book enjoyed in the Saldjuk period. And book painting in Mesopotamia after the fall of the Saldjuk dynasty often has marked Persian features, a factor which suggests the existence of an earlier pan-Saldjuk school of painting in which distinctions between Irak and Persia were perhaps not very significant (Singh 2002:1004)”

Smith, Paul. “Nizami: Layla and Majnun.” [3]

Symon, Roz. “Romeo and Juliet sources.” Royal Shakespeare Company Play Guide. >> Royal Shakespeare Company. http://www.rsc.org.uk/romeo/about/sources.html >> Royal Shakespeare Company site. Accessed January 26, 2008.

Wikipedia Layla and Majnun http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Layla_and_Majnun#_note-3 Last accessed January 26, 2008.

Mabillard, Amanda. 2007. “An Analysis of Shakespeare’s Sources for Romeo and Juliet”. Shakespeare Online. (09/12/07) , [1] . On Shakespeare’s sources for Romeo and Juliet see further [2] , the Royal Shakespeare Company site, [3].

Posted by: Maureen Flynn-Burhoe | November 2, 2009

Reconfiguring Rivers: Amudarya

Beard’s text (1972) described European travelers’ writings about the Transcaspian region. His work predates the intensive revisiting of seemingly objective narratives through a more critical lens that occurred in cultural studies.

“Traditionally the distinctive feature of the Transcaspian area is its isolation. Three of its boundaries are geographical barriers (the Caspian Sea, the Khirghiz Steppes, the Ferghana and Pamir mountain ranges) and the southern limits blocked from the sixteenth century until the last Russian annexations by the existence of Turkoman slave traders along the Atrak River and beyond. […] None of the most famous British travelers- neither E. G. Browne, the Sherley Brothers, Richard Burton, nor even Thomas Coryate- went there at all. The accounts of those who did go into the Transcaspian are extremely useful for the study of Central Asian history. We often find them present at the battles and political discussions of the region (MacGahan at the fall of Khiva, O’Donavan at Geok Tepe), and we find one of them (Conolly) as involved in the political intrigue as it is possible to be. Central Asia seems in the long run to have been richer in travelers than in indigenous historians. There is much of course that we miss when reading an outsider’s view of local history [and] there is always a side to these books which shows the traveler’s own background and we can trace in them […] the development of European attitudes towards the non-European world, from the merchants and the schemers of the seventeenth century to the missionaries and soldiers of the nineteenth (Beard 1972). “

View Reconfiguring Rivers: Amudarya-Oxus in a larger map

DRAFT!

Multi-Civilizational Timeline of Selected Events Related to Central Asia

(858 – 824 BC) “Ancient country of northwestern Iran generally corresponding to the modern regions of Azerbaijan, Kurdistan and parts of Kermanshah. Media first appears in the texts of the Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (858 – 824 BC) in which peoples of the land of Mada are recorded. The inhabitants came to be known as Medes … see also 2 Kings 17:6: In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes” http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/Media_Medes.html Media, Medes, Mada,

600 BC The ancient city of Afrasiab, Afrasyab, (later Samarkand) was founded in the 7th century B.C. “The historic town of Samarkand is a crossroad and melting pot of the world’s cultures. Founded in the 7th century B.C. as ancient Afrasiab, Samarkand had its most significant development in the Timurid period from the 14th to the 15th centuries. The major monuments include the Registan Mosque and madrasas, Bibi-Khanum Mosque, the Shakhi-Zinda compound and the Gur-Emir ensemble, as well as Ulugh-Beg’s Observatory (UNESCO-ICOMOS. 2009-09:221).” Afrasiab

c 500 BC. The earliest, Erk Kala, was founded c 500BC. Around 280 BC Erk Kala became the citadel for the much larger Hellenistic city of Antiochia Marginana (today known as Gyaur Kala) (Williams “dddd. ” Key words: The cities of Merv.

c. 280 BC Around 280 BC Erk Kala became the citadel for the much larger Hellenistic city of Antiochia Marginana (today known as Gyaur Kala). (Williams “dddd. ” Key words: The cities of Merv.

2nd Century BC “Present-day Yunnan is a province in Southwest China. Historically, Yunnan maintained close relationships with Southeast Asia, India, and Tibet, as archaeological findings and other studies have confirmed.1 As an interaction zone among several civilizations, Yunnan was influenced by and had an impact on other cultures. Scholars of China have named a trade route connecting the above regions the “Southwest Silk Road.”2 This international trade route geographically centered on Yunnan and Upper Burma. Yunnan’s importance, however, was based on far more than simply its location. Like Upper Burma, Yunnan is rich in precious metals such as gold and silver as well as other minerals such as tin, lead, and copper, and other local resources. In addition, Yunnan’s connections with the overland Silk Road and the maritime Silk Road greatly enhanced Yunnan’s role in transregional interactions. 1 This paper aims to demonstrate the global significance of Yunnan and to redraw the map of early Eurasian communication. While utilizing Chinese scholarship, I supplement Chinese scholars with non-Chinese sources to construct a more comprehensive picture of the Southwest Silk Road that in turn will add a new dimension to the Sino-foreign exchange and Eurasian communication. First, I will present a concise description of the road. Then, focusing on commercial items such as horses, silver, and cowries, I attempt to demonstrate the global importance of Yunnan by illustrating how Yunnan had shaped neighboring societies. Finally, the use of a world-system perspective will contribute to the ongoing world-system debates and add a new dimension to our understanding of Eurasian communications. Yunnan and Its Trans-Regional Trade: A Critique: Since the early twentieth century, scholarly investigations of the overland Silk Road and the maritime Silk Road have constructed a fundamental basis of the communication within the Eurasian supercontinent. While contributing a great deal to the understanding of ancient East-West exchange, studies of the above two silk routes have more or less overshadowed the third route, the so-called Southwest Silk Road from Southwest China via Burma to India.3 The earliest textual source of the Silk Road is Zhang Qian’s exploration in the Western Regions (xiyu) in the late second century BCE, recorded by Sima Qian in his Shi Ji. Nevertheless, Zhang Qian’s report indeed leads to another Silk Road: a road connecting Southwest China with India, where he found Sichuan cloth (Shubu) and bamboo cane (Qiongzhu) in Daxia (Bactria). Emperor Wu of Han (140–87 BCE) then dispatched his envoys and troops to pacify local polities around Yunnan, with the expectation that he could open this road for his sake. His efforts, unfortunately, failed. Because of Emperor Wu’s attempts, scholars in China for long time have paid a great deal of attention to this road. Many fragmentary and obscure records in Chinese historical writings prior to the Tang dynasty (618–907 CE) referred to the exchange between China and India through jungles, forests, rivers, and mountains from Sichuan, Yunnan, Burma, and Assam to India. We have no firsthand accounts of anyone completing this journey from early periods. Chinese documents after the Tang have detailed records, but they could offer little help for purposes of drawing a map of regions far away from the Chinese empire (Yang 2004-09).”

1st century CE The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea was written by a Romanized Alexandrian in the 1st century CE. It gives the shoreline itinerary of the Red (Erythraean) Sea, starting each time at the port of Berenice. Beyond the Red Sea, the manuscript describes the coast of India as far as the Ganges River and the east coast of Africa (called Azania).

AD 77-79 Roman scholar Pliny the Elder published his encyclopedia of natural history Naturalis Historia which attempted to cover all of ancient knowledge available to Pliny at the time. He called Nature the universal mother. His method of referencing original authors, extensive indexing content and covering as much information on all ancient knowledge that was available to him at the time, has become the model for later encyclopedias. The encyclopedia— but not its author survived the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius. It was first translated into English by Philemon Holland in 1601 and then in 1855 John Bostock and H. T. Riley provided a second English translation which included the index. Pliny the Elder (77-79)

“In the vicinity, too, of India, is Bactriana, in which region we find bdellium,[1] that is so highly esteemed. This tree is of a black colour, and about the size of the olive; it has leaves like those of the robur, and bears a fruit similar to that of the wild fig, and in nature resembling a kind of gum. This fruit is by some persons called brochon, by others malacha, and by others, again, maldacon. When of a black colour, and rolled up in cakes, it bears the name of hadrobolon. This substance ought to be transparent and the colour of wax, odoriferous, unctuous when subjected to friction, and bitter to the taste, though without the slightest acidity. When used for sacred purposes, it is steeped in wine, upon which it emits a still more powerful odour. The tree is a native of both India and Arabia, as well as Media and Babylon; some persons give to the bdellium that is imported by way of Media, the name of peraticum.[2] This last is remarkable for its brittleness, while, at the same time, it is harder and more bitter than the other kinds; that of India, on the other hand, is moister, and gummy. This last sort is adulterated by means of almonds, while the various other kinds are falsified with the bark of scordastum, that being the name of a tree[3] the gum of which strongly resembles bdellium. These aduiterations, however, are to be detected–and let it suffice to mention it here, in relation to all other perfumes as well–by the smell, the colour, the weight, the taste, and the action of fire. The bdellium of Bactriana is shining and dry, and covered with numerous white spots resembling the finger-nails; besides which, it should be of a certain weight, heavier or lighter than which it ought not to be. The price of bdellium, in its pure state, is three denarii per pound. [p. 3117]”
1. Fée remarks, that it is singular that a resinous gum, such as bdellium, should have been used in commerce for now two thousand years, and yet its origin remain unknown. Kæmpfer and Rumphus are of opinion, that the tree which produces it is the one known to naturalists as the Borassus flabelliformis of Linnæus, or the Lontarus of others [Genus: Lontarus Adans. Synonym of: Borassus L. Family: Arecaceae subfamily Coryphoideae tribe Borasseae subtribe Lataniinae Altfamily: Palmae Genus number: 20849 MFB]. It is imported into Europe from Arabia and India, and is often found mixed with gum Arabic.
2. peratikon; from periata gês “the remotest parts of the earth,” from which it was brought.
3. The modern name of this tree is unknown.
From CHAP. 19. (9.)–Trees of Bactriana, Bdellium or Brochon, otherwise Malacha or Maldacon, Scordastum. Adulterations used in all spices and aromatics. The various tests of them and their respective values.

570 AD Birth of Mohammed in the city of Mecca, on the caravan route between Yemen and Syria. Mecca is also known for the Kaaba, containing the sacred Black Stone

610 AD In Mecca Mohammed declared His Station as Prophet of God.

622 Year 1 of the Islamic calendar dating from the time Mohammed and His followers left Mecca.

632 Mohammed died. Islam spread throughout the Arabic world.

c. 632 – 700 AD a new Islamic city of Sultan Kala was built to the west, although Gyaur Kala continued in use alongside this, becoming an industrial suburb (Williams “dddd. ” Key words: The cities of Merv.

c. 1400s The Timurid city of Abdullah Khan Kala was constructed to the south, to which was added a suburb, Bairam Ali Khan Kala, around the eighteenth century (Williams “dddd. ” Key words: The cities of Merv.

c. 1700s The Timurid city of Abdullah Khan Kala was constructed to the south, to which was added a suburb, Bairam Ali Khan Kala, around the eighteenth century. (Williams “dddd. ” Key words: The cities of Merv.

1789 Antoine Laurent de Jussieu published Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam. Gallica taxonomy,

1879 Russian campaign of 1879 against the Turkmen tribes, later avenged at Geok Deppe. See Marvin, C. 1880. The Russian Campaign against the Turkomans. London: W.H. Allen and Co.

Eye-witness account of General Ivan Lazarov’s disastrous Russian campaign of 1879 against the Turkmen tribes, later avenged at Geok Deppe.

1999 State Historical and Cultural Park Ancient Merv, Turkmenistan. Merv “is the oldest and best-preserved of the oasis-cities along the Silk Route in Central Asia. The remains in this vast oasis span 4,000 years of human history. A number of monuments are still visible, particularly from the last two millennia (UNESCO-ICOMOS. 2009-09:215).” Keywords: Murghab Delta

Politics of Naming

Bactria, Daxia, Balkh (Persian: بلخ – Balḫ, Old Persian; Ancient Greek: Bactra), was an ancient city and centre of Zoroastrianism in what is now northern Afghanistan. Bactria (Bactriana), the ancient name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Paropamisus) and the Oxus (Amu Darya), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh); in the Persian inscriptions Bākhtri. It is a mountainous country with a moderate climate. Today it is a small town in the Afghani province of Balkh, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya River. It was one of the major cities of Khorasan. The ancient city of Balkh, in today’s Afghanistan was under the Greeks renamed Bactra, giving its name to Bactria.[citation needed] It was mostly known as the centre and capital of Bactria or Takharistan. Balkh is now for the most part a mass of ruins, situated some 12 km from the right bank of the seasonally-flowing Balkh River, at an elevation of about 365 m (1,200 ft). wiki

bdellium (pĕrātĭcum, i, n., = περατικόν, a species of the bdellium-tree, Plin. 12, 9, 19, 35.)

Bukhara, “which is situated on the Silk Route, is more than 2,000 years old. It is the most complete
example of a medieval city in Central Asia, with an urban fabric that has remained largely intact. Monuments of particular interest include the famous tomb of Ismail Samani, a masterpiece of 10th century Muslim architecture, and a large number of 17th-century madrasas (UNESCO-ICOMOS. 2009-09:219).” It was named as a protected site in 1993. Buchara, Bukhara, Uzbekistan,

Itchan Kala “is the inner town (protected by brick walls some 10 m high) of the old Khiva oasis, which was the last resting-place of caravans before crossing the desert to Iran. Although few very old monuments still remain, it is a coherent and well-preserved example of the Muslim architecture of Central Asia. There are several outstanding structures such as the Djuma Mosque, the mausoleums and the madrasas and the two magnificent palaces built at the beginning of the 19th century by Alla-Kulli-Khan (UNESCO-ICOMOS. 2009-09:218).” It was named as a protected site in 1990.

Kunya-Urgench “is situated in northwestern Turkmenistan, on the south side of the Amu Daria River.
Urgench was the capital of the Khorezm region, part of the Achaemenid Empire. The old town contains a series of monuments mainly from the 11th to 16th centuries, including a mosque, the gates of a caravanserai, fortresses, mausoleums and a minaret. The monuments testify to outstanding achievements in architecture and craftsmanship whose influence reached Iran and Afghanistan, and later the architecture of the Mogul Empire of 16th-century India (UNESCO-ICOMOS. 2009-09:216).” It was named as a protected World Heritage site in 2005.

Merv “is the oldest and best-preserved of the oasis-cities along the Silk Route in Central Asia. The remains in this vast oasis span 4,000 years of human history. A number of monuments are still visible, particularly from the last two millennia (UNESCO-ICOMOS. 2009-09.” Keywords: Murghab Delta

Samarkand “The historic town of Samarkand is a crossroad and melting pot of the world’s cultures. Founded in the 7th century B.C. as ancient Afrasiab, Samarkand had its most significant development in the Timurid period from the 14th to the 15th centuries. The major monuments include the Registan Mosque and madrasas, Bibi-Khanum Mosque, the Shakhi-Zinda compound and the Gur-Emir ensemble, as well as Ulugh-Beg’s Observatory (UNESCO-ICOMOS. 2009-09:221).” Afrasiab

Webliographies and Bibliographies

  • Anderson, Benedict. 1991 [1983]. “Census, Map and Museum.” Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London and New York: Verso.
  • Beard, Michael. 1972. “European Travelers in the Trans-Caspian before 1917.” Persee. 13:4:1900.
  • Dickens, Mark. 1995. “Major Events Relevant to Central Asian History.” http://www.oxuscom.com/CA_History_Timeline.pdf
  • UNESCO-ICOMOS. 2009-09. “World Heritage in Asia and Pacific.” UNESCO-ICOMOS Documentation Centre. http://www.international.icomos.org/centre_documentation/bib/worldheritageinasia-pacific.pdf
  • Marvin, Charles Thomas. 1880. The Russian Campaign against the Turkomans. London: W.H. Allen and Co. Also listed as “The Eye-Witnesses’ Account of the Disastrous Russian Campaign against the Akhal Tekke Turkomans:
    Describing the march across the burning dessert, the storming of Dengeel Tepe, and the disastrous retreat to the Caspian.”
  • Marvin, Charles Thomas. 1881. Merv, the queen of the world. London: W. H. Allen. “And the scourage of the man-stealing Turkomans. White an exposition of the Khorassan question.”
  • Musselman, L. J. 2003. “Trees in the Koran and the Bible.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Unasylva. 54:213. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y9882e/y9882e00.pdf
  • Nasr, S.H. 1996. Religion and the Order of Nature. New York, USA, Oxford University Press.
  • Pliny the Elder. 1855. [AD 77-79]. The Natural History. Translated by John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S. H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A. London. Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street.
  • Vincent, William. 1807. [1998] The Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients in the Indian Ocean in Two Volumes. Delhi: J. Jeffrey for Asian Educational Series.
    Google Books includes the maps produced c. 1800. Map 1a: Caspian Sea in top left, Most of Amudarya Rivershed???, Bactria to east of southern tip of Caspian Sea, Aria south west of Bactria, Great Desert spanning lower half of map,
    Oman bottom left of map; Map 1b: Caspian Sea in top right, Media in middle, Gulf of Persia in bottom right,

    Vincent, William. 1807. The Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients in the Indian Ocean in Two Volumes. Volume I. London. Vol. I: The Voyage Of Nearchus From The Indus To The Euphrates (Around The Year 325 B.C.) Collected From The Original Journal Preserved By Arrian, And Illustrated By Authorities Ancient And Modern. Containing An Account Of The First Navigation Attempted By Europeans In The Indian Ocean. Vol. Ii: The Periplus Of The Erythrean Sea. Containing An Account Of The Navigation Of The Ancients From The Sea Of Seuz To The Coast Of Zanguebar.

  • Vincent, William. 1807. “The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea.” The Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients in the Indian Ocean in Two Volumes. Volume II. London.
  • Williams, Tim. “dddd. The landscapes of Islamic Merv, Turkmenistan: Where to draw the line?Internet Archaeology. 25:1.
    This article by Tim Williams of the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, “outlines approaches for interpreting the Islamic city of Sultan Kala (Merv), c. 8th-13th centuries AD, based upon aerial photographic and satellite imagery. Hierarchies of assumptions (identification of individual wall lines; which frame spaces, rooms and courtyards; which are grouped as parts of specific buildings; which are part of urban blocks) and ontologies (information about these assumptions and the variable confidence of interpretation, from the position of lines to spatial function) provide a dynamic structure for the presentation of data, interpretation and theory (Williams dddd).
  • Yang, Bin. 2004-09. “Horses, Silver, and Cowries: Yunnan in Global Perspective.” History Cooperative. 15:3. Northeastern University. Key words: Deep Internet, Deep Web.
  • Yoon, Carol Kaesuk. 2009. Naming Nature: the Clash between Instinct and Science. New York and London: W. W. Norton.

Outside links

Notes

Internet Archaeology is a journal whose contents are only available through registration and subscription. It is therefore part of the much less accessible Deep Web.

ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites)

Shortlink http://wp.me/pEVEP-C


Posted by: Maureen Flynn-Burhoe | October 16, 2009

Wharton’s Icefields




Wharton’s Icefields

Originally uploaded by ocean.flynn

In an seamless blend of mountaineering, history, botany and fiction, Edmonton author Thomas Wharton revisits the shifting social and cultural events that took place on the edge of the Columbia icefields in the late 19th and early 20th century. In 1898 while on an expedition in the Columbia (Arcturus) glacier, doctor and amateur botanist Edward Bryne fell through a crevasse where he was held upside down in the icy grip of the narrowing walls of the chasm suspended in a liminal state between reality and dreams.

Using Adobe Photoshop I created this digitage inspired by descriptions and interpretations of the angel in Dr. Bryne’s icy vision. I layered images of ice taken at the Glenmore reservoir in Calgary, a Calypso orchid taken on Heart Mountain in June 2008 and my mother’s portrait from the early 1900s.

The Calypso orchid was elegantly selected as a character in the novel, as the origin of its name signifies concealment. It is a fragile plant with a wide, circumpolar distribution, that requires a highly specific ecosystem. Once it was an edible and medicinal plant for the First Nations who gathered plants in the Rockies but with increased traffic on what were once remote montaine trails, it is now an endangered species. At a certain height on Heart Mountain Trail when the scree became too difficult for me to manage, I was looking for an easier route a bit farther back from the steep edge of the trail when I came across a couple of these tiny purple orchids in a delicate floral embrace.

stoney, concealment, edible, circumpolar, ethnobotany, fairy slipper, Venus’s slipper, tagging, taxonomy, walkingtrails, wildflowersnorthamerica, wfgna, rockymountains, rockies, geotagging, geotagged, geotag, creativecommons, calgarydaytrips, alberta, CalypsoFairySlipper, Calypso.Bulbosa,

Citations:

“bare, windswept slope of ice … projecting spine of ice … stepped backward into the abyss . . . (Wharton 1995 [2007:2]) . . . deep blue gloom p.3 . . . “
“I prefer words on a page. They don’t gesticulate.”

“restless crowd with its panoply of cameras (Wharton 1995 [2007:274]).”

Wharton, Thomas. 1995 [2007]. Icefields. Nunatak Fiction. NeWest Press. Edmonton, AB.

Notes

1. The calypso orchid The Calypso bulbosa, Calypso orchid, Fairy’s slipper, Venus’s slipper or Plantae > Magnoliophyta > Liliopsida > Asparagales < Orchidaceae < Epidendroideae < Calypsoeae < Calypso < Salisb. < Calypso bulbosa

Nunatak is a word in Inuktitut meaning “lonely peak,” a rock or mountain rising above ice. During Quaternary glaciation in North America, peaks stood above the ice sheet and so became refuge for plant and animal life. Magnificent nunataks, their bases scoured by glaciers, can be seen along the Highwood Pass in the Alberta Rocky Mountains and on Ellesmere Island. The Nunatak fiction series are especially selected works of fiction by new western authors. Editors for Nunataks for NeWest Press are Aritha van Herk and Ruby Wiebe.

Sexsmith’s expedition is based on the 1859-1860 expedition undertaken by James Carnegie, Earl of Southesk.

Bibliography of research resources acknowledged by author Thomas Wharton

Adassiz, Louis. 1967. Studies on Glaciers. Trans. Albert Carozzi. New York: Hafner.
Carnegie, James. 1875. Saskatchewan and the Rocky Mountains.
Gadd, Benn. 1987. Handbook of the Canadian Rockies, Jasper, Alberta: Corax.
Kagami, Yoshiro. 1951. “Edward Bryne: a Life on Ice.” Journal of Alpine Exploration. ii:6.
Stuffield, Hugh; Collie, J. Norman. 1903. Climbs and Explorations in the Canadian Rockies. London: Longmans, Green and Company.

Uploaded to Flickr by ocean.flynn on 26 Aug 08, 3.16PM MDT.

Posted by: Maureen Flynn-Burhoe | October 15, 2009

Blog Action Day: Mapping Ice Melt

This post on mapping ice melting in Antarctica, which is part of an ongoing mapping memory project by a bricoleuse, is updated beyond its first publication date, April 6, 2009, as new satellite images become available from the NASA, European Space Agency, British Antarctic Survey, Arctic Council etc. The post includes a time line of melting ice, a customized Google Map and a webliography. Effort is made to use the semantic web to its fullest through attentive folksonomy. This “Mapping Ice Melt” timeline has been uploaded to celebrate Blog Action Day, October 15, 2009.

Mapping Ice Melt @ googlemap: http://snurl.com/h3l9b wordpress: http://wp.me/pEVEP-n http://snurl.com/h3m09 by a concerned bricoleuse using open data and the tools the semantic web and web 2.0 as part of a mapping communal memory series. This post will continue to be updated as new satellite images become available from the European Space Agency, British Antarctic Survey, Arctic Council etc. The post includes a time line of melting ice, a customized Google Map and a webliography. Effort is made to use the semantic web to its fullest through attentive folksonomy. The Wilkins Ice Shelf, a plate of floating ice on the western Antarctic Peninsula connecting to two islands, Charcot and Latady was very stable since the 1930s but began retreating in the 1990s. Since the late 1950s average temperatures have risen by half a degree Celsius a decade (ESA 2007) making the continent one of the fastest warming places on earth. Six of its ice shelves

University of Colorado’s National Snow and Ice Data Center, explained (2008-11-26),

“Ice thickness, its spatial extent, and the fraction of open water within the ice pack can vary rapidly and profoundly in response to weather and climate. Sea ice typically covers about 14 to 16 million square kilometers in late winter in the Arctic and 17 to 20 million square kilometers in the Antarctic Southern Ocean. On average, the seasonal decrease is much larger in the Antarctic, with only about three to four million square kilometers remaining at summer’s end, compared to approximately seven million square kilometers in the Arctic. Over the past several years, Arctic minima have been only four to six million square kilometers. [Maps of late winter and late summer ice cover in the the Arctic and Antarctica] … The interaction between sea ice loss and ice shelf retreat merits careful study because many ice shelves are fed by glaciers. When an ice shelf disintegrates, the glacier feeding it often accelerates. Because glacier acceleration introduces a new ice mass into the ocean, it can raise ocean level. So while sea ice melt does not directly lead to sea level rise, it could contribute to other processes that do, both in the Arctic and the Antarctic. Glacier acceleration has already been observed on the Antarctic Peninsula, although the accelerating glaciers in that region have so far had a negligible effect on ocean level NASA. 2009-04-21).”

Scientists commonly divide the sea ice pack around Antarctica into five sectors: the Weddell Sea, the Indian Ocean, the western Pacific Ocean, the Ross Sea, and the Bellingshausen/Amundsen seas. In some sectors, it is common for nearly all the sea ice to melt in the summer… [U]nlike the Arctic, where the downward trend is consistent in all sectors, in all months, and in all seasons, the Antarctic picture is more complex. Based on data from 1979-2006, the annual trend for four of the five individual sectors was a very small positive one, but only in the Ross Sea was the increase statistically significant (greater than the natural year-to-year variability). On the other hand, ice extent decreased in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Sea sector during the same period NASA. 2009-04-21).

The Wilkins Ice Shelf, a plate of floating ice on the western Antarctic Peninsula connecting to two islands, Charcot and Latady was very stable since the 1930s but began retreating in the 1990s. Since the late 1950s average temperatures have risen by half a degree Celsius a decade (ESA 2007) making the continent one of the fastest warming places on earth. Six of its ice shelves already completely collapsed: Prince Gustav Channel, Larsen Inlet, Larsen A, Larsen B, Wordie, Muller and the Jones Ice Shelf (BBC 2009-04-05).

The Wilkins Ice Shelf is monitored by the European Space Agency and the British Antarctic Survey. In 2008 a c. 400 km² broke off from the Wilkins Ice Shelf. The bridge between Charcot and Latady islands was narrowed down by May, 2008 to just 2.7 km.

See also

In early April 2009 the thin ice bridge, which served to protect thousands of kilometres of Wilkins Ice Shelf from further break-up, snapped.

See NASA April 7, 2009 images and description

2009-04-07 “The Obama administration on Monday called for enhanced protection of the Earth’s polar regions, proposing mandatory limits on Antarctic tourism and urging increased research in Antarctica and in the Arctic. Opening a conference of parties to the Antarctic Treaty, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton said the recent collapse of an Antarctic ice bridge was a stark reminder that the poles were gravely threatened by climate change and human activity. She said the treaty, which also bans military use of the continent, could be a model for improved cooperation and coordination in the Arctic, which is not governed by a similar pact (AP 2009-04-07).”

The Wilkins Ice Shelf may be on the brink of breaking away as an ice bridge between Charcot and Latady Islands has just ruptured.

Professor David Vaughan, a glaciologist with the British Antarctic Survey said the breaking of the bridge had been anticipated for awhile and the collapse of the Wilkins Ice Shelf is likely to follow. “The fact that it’s retreating and now has lost connection with one of its islands is really a strong indication that the warming on the Antarctic is having an effect on yet another ice shelf.” more | (BBC 2009-04-05)

Timeline of melting ice in the Arctic and Antarctic

1900 The ice shelves across northern Ellesmere Island were first observed and noted by western scientists (“discovered”). In 1900 the total area of these ice shelves was c. 10,000 sq km. (Luke Copeland University of Ottawa).

1956-1993 The Müller Ice Shelf was 80 sq km in 1956 and 49 sq km by 1993 (Ward 1995).

1957 International Geophysical Year

1970s Rothera Research Station was opened 67° 34’ S, 68 ° 08’ W, Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, Antartica.

1970s The Jones Ice Shelf was 25 sq km in 1947 and had disappeared by 2003. “In recent decades, several ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula have diminished in size as a result of climate warming. Using aerial photographic, satellite and survey data we document a similar retreat of Jones Ice Shelf, which was another small ice shelf on the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. This ice shelf was roughly stable between 1947 and 1969, but in the early 1970s it began to retreat and had completely disappeared by early 2003. Jones Ice Shelf has two ice fronts only a few kilometres apart and its retreat provides a unique opportunity to examine how different ice fronts retreat when subjected to similar climate forcing. We mapped the retreat of both the east and west ice fronts of Jones Ice Shelf and found that, although individual episodes of retreat may be related to particularly warm summers, the overall progress of retreat of the two ice fronts has been rather different. This suggests that in this case the course of retreat is controlled by the geometry of the embayment and location of pinning points as well as climatic events (Fox and Vaughan 2005).”

1995 Larsen A broke off in 1995.

2002 A piece of ice that was sheered away from Larsen B roughly the size of Luxembourg represented the biggest for 10,000 years since the Ice Age. […] “In March 2002, scientists announced the Larsen B ice shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula had entered a phase of rapid break-up with more than 50 billion tons of ice spilling into the Weddell Sea to form thousands of massive icebergs. It had been known for many years that the ice shelf was thinning and in retreat but the speed of its final collapse astonished scientists. It took just 35 days for the Larsen B ice shelf to fall away completely after a Nasa satellite detected the first ruptures in the 1,255 square miles of ice at the end of January 2002.”(Connor 2005-08-04)

2005-08-13 “On August 13, 2005, almost the entire Ayles Ice Shelf calved from the northern edge of Ellesmere Island. This reduced the remaining ice shelves there from 6 to 5, and continues a trend of dramatic loss of these ice shelves over the past century. Since 1900, approximately 90% of the Ellesmere Island ice shelves have calved and floated away. This is a one-way process as there is insufficient new ice formation to replace the ice that has been lost. The Ayles calving event was the largest in at least the last 25 years; a total of 87.1 sq km (33.6 sq miles) of ice was lost in this event, of which the largest piece was 66.4 sq km (25.6 sq. miles) in area. This piece is equivalent in size to approximately 11,000 football fields or a little larger than the City of Manhattan. Please note that some media stories have incorrectly stated the area as 41 sq. miles due to an improper conversion from sq. km” – (Ayles Ice Shelf – Dr. Luke Copland)

2007 Dr. Luke Copland, an assistant professor of geography at the University of Ottawa, noted that “there have been many breakups of ice shelves across northern Ellesmere Island over the last century so. When these ice shelves were first discovered in about 1900, they were a total of about 10,000 sq km in area. Today they have reduced in size by about 90%, to about 1000 sq km in area. The Ayles Ice Shelf loss was the largest breakup in at least 25 years, but it is part of the long-term trend of loss over the last century. The important point to note with all of these losses is that they are essentially permanent. There is no longer enough glacier ice flowing off the land to replace the ice that is being calved into the ocean. Hence these 3000+ year old shelves are now gone forever.” For more info on Dr Copland’s work visit

2007 Mauri Pelto, a glaciologist at Nichols College published an article on the calving of the Ayles Ice Shelf in the Arctic Circle.

2007 the Intergovern-mental Panel on Climate Change reached a consensus position that human-induced global warming was causing physical and biological impacts worldwide.

2007-12 In their article entitled “The Heat is On” Kristie L. Ebi and Gerald A. Meehl from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) described the The National Center for Atmospheric Research/Department of Energy Parallel Climate (NCEP/NCAR) Model (PCM) which they used for their analysis. This “is a global coupled climate model incorporating atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and sea ice components. Simulations of 20th century climate start in 1870, then run forward with time-evolving factors that affect the climate system, including natural (solar and volcanoes) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases, sulfate aerosols, and tropospheric and stratospheric ozone) climate drivers (Meehl et al., 2004). The model was run four times from slightly different initial conditions, providing simulations for present-day heatwaves. Observations of past climate were analyzed in a similar fashion and compared to the model results (Figure 1a,b). The model did a good job ofsimulating the amplitude and the geographic pattern of observed heatwave intensity over North America. Both the model results and the observations show that heatwaves are most severe over the Eastern Seaboard, the southern and upper Midwest, and the southwestern United States. This model simulation of heatwave intensity is similar to a number of other models, as depicted by Tebaldi et al. (2006). Kristie L. Ebi and Gerald A. Meehl. 2007-12. “The Heat is On.” in the report entitledRegional Impacts of Climate Change.

2008-03-28 The European Space Agency captured these images of the break up of the Wilkins Ice Shelf:

ESA 2009-04-03 Wilkins Ice Shelf

ESA 2009-04-03 Wilkins Ice Shelf

2009-04-03

European Space Agency 2008-03-28 Wilkins Ice Shelf

European Space Agency 2008-03-28 Wilkins Ice Shelf

Posted here

2009-04-28 European Space Agency satellite images of the shelf show that in the third week in April 2009 alone, 370 sq km of the northern ice front of the Wilkins Ice Shelf shattered into its first mass of icebergs released into the ocean,” Angelika Humbert, glaciologist at the University of Muenster in Germany, reported to Reuters that “about 700 sq km of ice – bigger than Singapore or Bahrain and almost the size of New York – has broken off the Wilkins this month and shattered into a mass of icebergs. [This is the most recent in a series of about 10 ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula to retreat in a trend linked by the UN Climate Panel to global warming. The new icebergs added to 330 sq kms of ice that broke up earlier this month with the shattering of an ice bridge apparently pinning the Wilkins in place between Charcot island and the Antarctic Peninsula. Nine other shelves – ice floating on the sea and linked to the coast – have receded or collapsed around the Antarctic peninsula in the past 50 years, often abruptly like the Larsen A in 1995 or the Larsen B in 2002. [Humbert had previously warned that once the ice bridge between Charcot and Latady islands off the Antarctic Peninsula collapsed (which happened earlier in April 2009) the Wilkins Ice Shelf could lose a total of 800 to 3,000 sq kms of area]. The Wilkins shelf has already shrunk by about a third from its original 16,000 sq kms when first spotted decades ago. [Because of the thickness of the ice on the Wilkens Ice Shelf it was estimated that it took at least hundreds of years to form.] (Reuters 2009-04-28) (Reuters 2009-04-28).”

2009-08-14 “Researchers at the University of Leeds, writing in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, said the Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is thinning at a rate of up to 16 metres a year and has lowered as much as 90 metres in the last decade. At its current rate of thinning, the glacier could disappear in a century. Previous predictions, based on the glacier’s rate of decline a decade ago, said the glacier would likely disappear in 600 years. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest glacier in West Antarctica, and at 175,000 square kilometres is roughly the size of the province of New Brunswick and the island of Newfoundland combined (CBC 2009-08-14).” “One of Antarctica’s greatest glaciers is thinning so quickly it could disappear within 100 years. This is 500 years sooner than previously estimated and jeopardises a volume of ice that could raise global sea levels by around 25cm. British Antarctic Survey fieldcamp on Pine Island Glacier Researchers reported just eight years ago that Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica could be lost within 600 years, but now they say satellite data covering a longer period of time means they are able to make a more accurate estimate. Research led by Professor Duncan Wingham of University College London suggests that the rate at which the glacier is thinning has accelerated and spread inland. Wingham and his team calculate that the central ‘trunk’ of the glacier lost four times as much ice in 2006 than it did in 1995: around 10.2 cubic kilometres compared with 2.6 cubic kilometres (Planet Earth 2009-08-14).”

Key words: Adelaide Island, Adrian J. Fox, aerial photography, Aerial survey, Angelika Humbert, Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic tourism, Antarctic Treaty, Antarctica, anthropogenic climate drivers, Arctic, Atmosphere cryosphere interaction, Ayles Ice Shelf, Bellingshausen/Amundsen seas, Blog Action Day, British Antarctic Survey, ice calving event, Charcot Island, climate change, climate change:adaptations, climate change:impacts, climate change:vulnerabilities, climate forcing, climate modification, climatic events, colonial cartography, critical ecosystems, Cryosphere, David G. Vaughan, David Vaughan, dead zones, Department of Energy Parallel Climate, Duncan Wingham, Dynamical climatology, Earth Observatory, ecosystem approach, Ellesmere Island, European Space Agency, extreme weather events, geomatics, glacier acceleration, Glacier variation, glacier’s central trunk, glaciers, glaciologist, global hurricane intensity, global sea level, global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, groundwater, heatwaves, Hillary Clinton, human-induced ecosystem stressors, human-induced global warming, hypoxia, Ice Age, ice bridge, ice shelf, Indian Ocean, Intergovern-mental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, Jones Ice Shelf, Journal of Glaciology, Landsat satellite, Larsen A, Larsen B, Larsen Inlet, Latady Island, Luke Copland, mandatory limits on Antarctic tourism, Mapping Ice Melting, Mapping Memory, massive icebergs, Mauri Pelto, Müller Ice Shelf, My Google Maps, NASA, National Center for Atmospheric Research, National Snow and Ice Data Center, natural climate drivers, north Atlantic oscillation, North Pole, Obama, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Pine Island, Pine Island Glacier, Planet Earth, Polar Cap, politics of naming, Prince Gustav Channel, regional impacts of climate change, resilience to climate variability, retreating ice shelf, risk management, river systems, Ross Sea, Rothera Research Station, Satellite observation, sea change, Sea Ice Ebbs, Sea Ice Flows, sea ice loss, sea ice pack, semantic web, South Pole, Space remote sensing, UN Climate Panel, watershed, webliography, Weddell Sea, western Pacific Ocean, wildfire, Wilkins Ice Shelf, Wordie

Colonial Cartography

http://wairarapa.co.nz/times-age/weekly/2002/ayles.html

This article has the best map of Arctic Ice shelves Ellesmere Island: http://www.ice.ec.gc.ca/content_contenu/2007coplandweir.pdf

wikipedia map antarctica

wikipedia map antarctica

Webliography and Bibliography

AP. 2009. “U.S. Seeks Protection of Polar Areas.” New York Times.

BBC. 2009-04-05. “Ice bridge ruptures in Antarctic

Connor, Steve. 2005-08-04. “Ice shelf collapse was biggest for 10,000 years since Ice Age.” The London Independent.

European Space Agency. 2007-03-02. “Earth from Space: Larsen-B Ice Shelf on thin ice.”

European Space Agency. 2008-03-28. “Earth from Space: Further break-up of Antarctic ice shelf

European Space Agency. 2008-06-13. “Even the Antarctic winter cannot protect Wilkins Ice Shelf.”

European Space Agency. 2009-04-03. “Collapse of the ice bridge supporting Wilkins Ice Shelf appears imminent.”

Fox, Adrian J.; Vaughan, David G.. 2005. “The retreat of Jones Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula.” Journal of Glaciology. 51 (175). 555-560

NASA. 2009-04-21. Sea Ice Ebbs and Flows.

NASA. 2009-04-21. “Sea Ice Ebbs and Flows: Antarctica.

Planet Earth. 2009-08-14. Pine Island glacier may disappear within 100 years.”

Reuters. 2009-04-28. “New York-sized ice shelf collapses off Antarctica.” The Independent.

See also NASA webliography

References

Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson (2008). Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006, Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans. 113, C07004.

Comiso, J.C., Parkinson, C.L., Gersten, R., Stock, L. (2008). Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters. 35, L01703.

de la Mare, W.K. (1997). Abrupt mid-twentieth-century decline in Antarctic sea-ice extent from whaling records. Nature. 389, 57-60.

Goosse, H., Lefebvre, W., de Montety, A., Crespin, E., and Orsi, A.H. (2008). Consistent past half-century trends in the atmosphere, the sea ice and the ocean at high southern latitudes. Climate Dynamics.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Summary for Policymakers. In:Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 7-22.

Mahoney, A.R., Barry, R.G., Smolyanitsky, V., Fetterer, F. (2008). Observed sea ice extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933–2006. Journal of Geophysical Research. 113, C11005.

Meier, W.N., Stroeve, J., Fetterer, F. (2007). Whither Arctic sea ice? A clear signal of decline regionally, seasonally, and extending beyond the satellite record. Annals of Glaciology. 46(1), 428-434.
National Snow and Ice Data Center:

All About Sea Ice. Accessed March 6, 2009.

Arctic Sea Ice Down to Second-Lowest Extent; Likely Record-Low Volume. Accessed March 6, 2009.

Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis. Accessed March 6, 2009.

Frequently Asked Questions about Sea Ice. Accessed February 4, 2009.

State of the Cryosphere. Accessed 2009-02-04.

Overland, J.E., Spillane, M.C., Percival, D.B., Wang, M., Mofjeld, H.O. (2004). Seasonal and regional variation of Pan-Arctic surface air temperature over the instrumental record. American Meteorological Society. 17(17), 3263-3282.

Parkinson, C.L. (1997). Earth from Above. University Science Books. Sausalito, California.

Parkinson, C.L. (2000). Recent trend reversals in arctic sea ice extents: possible connection to the north Atlantic oscillation. Polar Geography. 31(1-2), 3-14.

Parkinson, C.L., Cavalieri, D.J. (2008). Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979-2006. Journal of Geophysical Research. 113, C07003.

Raphael, M.N. (2007). The influence of atmospheric zonal wave three on Antarctic sea ice variability. Journal of Geophysical Research. 112, D12112.

Scambos, T.A., Bohlander, J.A., Shuman, C.A., Skvarca, P. (2004). Glacier acceleration and thinning after ice shelf collapse in the Larsen B embayment, Antarctica.Geophysical Research Letters. 31, L18402.

Schiermeier, Q. (2006). A sea change. Nature. 439, 256-260.

Serreze, M.C., Holland, M.K., Stroeve, J. (2007). Perspectives on the Arctic’s shrinking sea-ice cover. Science. 315(5818), 1533-1536.

Steig, E.J., Schneider, D.P., Rutherford, S.D., Mann, M.E., Comiso, J.C., Shindell, D.T. (2009). Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year. Nature. 457, 459-463.

Yuan, X. (2004). ENSO-related impacts on Antarctic sea ice: a synthesis of phenomenon and mechanisms. Antarctic Science. 16(4), 415-425.

Lindsey, R. 2008-12-04.New Cracks in the Wilkins Ice Shelf. Earth Observatory. Accessed 2009-08-12.

Riebeek, H. 2009-04-08. Wilkins Ice Bridge Collapse. Earth Observatory. Accessed 2009-08-12.

Scott, M. 2008-03-26. Disintegration: Antarctic Warming Claims Another Ice Shelf. Earth Observatory. Accessed 2009-08-12.

State of the Cryosphere. 2008-11-14.Ice Shelves. National Snow and Ice Data Center. Accessed August 12, 2009.

NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data obtained from the Goddard Level 1 and Atmospheric Archive and Distribution System (LAADS). Caption by Michon Scott based on image interpretation by Ted Scambos, National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Lindsey, R. (2008, December 4). New Cracks in the Wilkins Ice Shelf. Earth Observatory. Accessed August 12, 2009.

Riebeek, H. (2009, April 8). Wilkins Ice Bridge Collapse. Earth Observatory. Accessed August 12, 2009.

Scott, M. (2008,March 26). Disintegration: Antarctic Warming Claims Another Ice Shelf. Earth Observatory. Accessed August 12, 2009.

State of the Cryosphere. (2008, November 14). Ice Shelves. National Snow and Ice Data Center. Accessed August 12, 2009.

NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data obtained from the Goddard Level 1 and Atmospheric Archive and Distribution System (LAADS). Caption by Michon Scott based on image interpretation by Ted Scambos, National Snow and Ice Data Center

http://wp.me/pEVEP-n

Posted by: Maureen Flynn-Burhoe | October 5, 2009

Museology: a Timeline

1677 G. Mitelli’s “A Baroque “Cabinet of Curiosities.” Lorenzo Legati, Museo Cospiano annesso a quello del famoso Ulisse Aldrovandi e donato alla sua patria dall’illustrissimo Signor Ferdinando Cospi. “One of the first full-fledged demonstrations of this interpretative strategy was Eilean Hooper-Greenhill’s Museums and the Shaping of Knowledge, several times reprinted since its appearance in 1992. “[I]nstead of attempting to find generalisations and unities,” Hooper-Greenhill proposed “to look for differences, for change, and for rupture.”15 This “effective history” as distinct from the “normal history” of progressive development would clear the way to a full appreciation for the array of alternative practices that the old teleological accounts had glossed over or suppressed. On the model of Foucault’s templates of successive formations of power and knowledge (the famous discursive formations-discourse-epistemes), Hooper-Greenhill discussed a succession of sites of collection and display—the Medici Palace in Florence; the Renaissance Wunderkammer or Cabinet of Curiosities (see Fig. 1) the natural history collections of the seventeenth century, particularly the Repository of the Royal Society in England; and the modern “Disciplinary Museum” for which the postrevolutionary Louvre was the prototype. The result is not a connected museum history, let alone a history of “the” museum. It is rather a kind of genealogical chart of the shifting constellations of epistemology and authority governing the collection of material objects” (Starn 2005).

1783 An image depicting the monument to Friedrich II in Kassel’s Friedrichsplatz. The Museum Fridericianum proudly claimed that it was the first museum in Europe. Cassel had galleries, parks, gardens and palaces that imitated the magnificence of Versailles. The Langraves of Hesse-Cassel were dealers in men for centuries. Hessian mercenaries had defeated the agrarian peasants in the area and took their lands. Napoleon III was imprisoned in Cassel, Northern Germany. See Crimp ‘The Art of Exhibition’ (OMR:236). 1845 William Peale’s Museum in Philadelphia closed because of competition from P. T. Barnum’s Grand Colossal Museum and Greatest Show on Earth (Boon 1991:259).

1828 In his plans for the Berlin Museum, Schinkel preserved the world of classical perfection in his rotunda which was also the visitor’s first encounter with the museum.”The sight of this beautiful and exalted place must create the mood for and make one susceptible to the pleasure of judgement that the building holds in store throughout.” [. . . ] “First delight, then instruct.” This sanctuary as Schinkel called it, would contain the prize works of monumental classical sculpture mounted on high pedestals. This was to have the effect of preparing the visitor for a “march through the history of man’s striving for Absolute Spirit. Schinkel planned a gestalt in which all relationships among objects were fixed. He paid close attention to Hegel’s notion of aesthetics as they were elaborated in his lectures from 1823-29. Hegel declared that, “The spirit of our world todat appears beyond the stage at which art is the supreme mode of our knowledge of the Absolute. The peculiar nature of artistic production and of works of art no longer fulfills our highest need. We have got beyond venerating works of art as divine and worshipping them. The impression they make on us needs a higher touchstone and a different test. Thought and reflection have spread their wings over fine art.” (Hegel, Introduction to Aesthetics). Hegel was speaking of the Owl of Minerva which was to be exhibited in the museum’s rotunda. The Owl of Minerva prepares the viewer for a contemplation of art which “has lost for us genuine truth and life, and has rather been transferred into our ideas instead of maintaining its earlier necessity in reality . . . Art invites us to intellectual consideration, and that not for the purpose of creating art again, but for knowing philosophically what art is.” Crimp continues, “It is upon this wresting of art from its necessity in reality that idealist aesthetics and the ideal museum are founded; and it is against the power of their legacy that we must still struggle for a materialist aesthetics and a materialist art (Crimp 1993:302).

1845 P. T. Barnum’s Grand Colossal Museum and Greatest Show on Earth (Boon 1991:259).


1851
Crystal Palace Exhibition was one of the first great world fair’s which were a great nationalistic invention in the 19th century based on the theme of European’s progress (Errington 1998:18). Colonized peoples were represented as sources of raw materials. The disciplines of folklore and archaeology were used for nationalistic purposes. The Crystal Palace unintentionally represented Britain’s colonial transgressions (Boon 1991:259). The world’s fair, the museum of science and technology, the fine arts museum, the natural history museum are examples of public sites for mass education in the idea of progress (Errington 1998:19).
1861 Edward Belcher wrote an paper entitled ‘On the manufacture of works of art by the Esquimaux’ which is archived in the Department of Ethnography in the British Museum in London. See J. King Franks and Ethnography. This may be the first paper written on Inuit art (Belcher 1861).

1892 Henry James (1892) described Venice as a beautiful tomb, a museum city with its gondoliers, beggars and models as custodians and ushers and objects of the great museum. (James, Henry. 1988. Henry James on Italy [Selections from Italian Hours] New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988:10 cited in Boon 1991:255). Crimp (IMR 1993:109) referred to a ghost tale by Henry James which played on the double, antithetical meaning of the word presence. “The presence before him was a presence.” In his ghost stories James uses a notion of presence as a ghost that is really an absence. It refers to a presence which is not there. Crimp added the idea of a presence as a kind of increment of being there. It is a ghostly presence that is its excess of presence even when the person conjured is absent. Crimp compared this to Laurie Anderson’s presence at Documenta 7 (1982) in Cassel as an uninvited but powerfully present contemporary artist.

1893 Boas has collected data for this book while gathering ethnographic material in preparation for the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition which he hoped would be a potential for public education about other cultures through the use of culturally sensitive and intelligent ethnographic displays. Boas, a Jew devoted his life to dismantling racist notions that had impregnated the social sciences in the 19th century. He was so disgusted by the final displays of human culture in the world fairs that he refused any further collaboration. At the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair Inuit wore their fur clothing in the heat of Chicago summers. They demonstrated the art of snapping whips and exhibited their kayaks. Franz Boas’ (1858-1942) book entitled The Central Eskimo was reprinted. Boas has been called the father of American Anthropology. Boas promoted the concept of cultural determinism. His students including Margaret Mead founded university departments and/or directed museums of ethnography. See also The World as Marketplace: Commodification of the Exotic at the World’s Colombian Exposition, Chicago (Hinsley 1991) Columbia Exposition was the origin of the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry (Errington 1998:20).

1904 Exposition in St. Louis displayed Philippine natives. The US had recently annexed the Philippines.

1905 Franz Boas resigned after ten years with the American Museum of Natural History because he was convinced that it was impossible to adequately represent cultural meaning on so slim a basis as physical objects. (8) He turned his attention to analysis of oral traditions, hoping to find in texts recorded directly from native speakers a more objective method of addressing the issues preoccupying the anthropology of his day — race, language, and culture. (9) Some of his followers, though, continued to argue for the superior objectivity of material culture; Alfred Kroeber, for instance, saw archaeological data as ‘the purest [data] there are.’ (10) This penchant for trying to abstract evidence about ‘traditional’ culture from embodied words and things, while ignoring the turmoil engulfing Native peoples at the time collections were made, has retrospectively been interpreted as a serious shortcoming of early anthropology, but it established patterns. “In the short history of anthropology, analyses of spoken words and of material objects have usually been compartmentalized. In North America this dichotomy reflects the way the discipline was originally constituted.

1907 Picasso’s acquaintance Pieret began to make raids on the Louvre removing Phoenician antiquities and selling them to Picasso. Richardson suggested that these Iberian sculptures inspired Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907) (Richardson 1996:22-3). Picasso claimed that his epiphany came in when he paid a visit to the seldom frequented Ethnographical Museum at the Trocadero, now the Musee de l’Homme. He described this visit to Malraux later. “When I went to the old Trocadero, it was disgusting. The Flea Market. The smell. I was all alone. I wanted to get away. But I didn’t leave. I stayed. I understood that it was important: something was happening to me right? The masks weren’t like any other pieces of sculpture. Not at all. They were like magic things. But they weren’t the Egyptian pieces or the Chaldean? We hadn’t realized it. Those were primitives, not magic things. The Negro pieces were intercesseurs, mediators: ever since then I’ve known the word in French. They were against everything. I too believe that everything is unknown, that everything is an enemy! Everything! I understood what the Negroes used their sculpture for… The fetishes were… weapons. To help people avoid coming under the influence of spirits again, to help them become independent. Spirits, the unconscious (people still weren’t talking about that much), emotion — they’re all the same thing. I understand why I was a painter. All alone in that awful museum, with masks, dolls made by the redskins, dusty manikins. Les Desmoiselles d’Avignon must have come to me that day, but not at all because of the forms; because it was my first exorcism painting— yes absolutely! (Malraux 1974:11)” Picasso discovered African art section of Tropedaro? in Louvre (Errington 1998:10). Primitive objects, history

1910 National Gallery of Canada Collection moved to east wing of theVictoria Memorial Museum building.

1914 “In her recent book, The Death of Authentic Primitive Art and Other Tales of Progress (1998) anthropologist Shelly Errington traces the rise of the modernist paradigm of Authentic Primitive Art in the United States through a series of temporary exhibits, ranging from the 1914 exhibition at Alfred Stieglitz’s 219 Gallery in New York to the exhibits of African, Oceanic and American Indian Art at the Museum of Modern Art during the 1930s and 1940s to the permanent Museum of Primitive Art established in New York in 1957 (Phillips 2002:46-7).”

1923-42 Frederick Keppel was the president of powerful Carnegie Corporation. At that the Corporation were interested in creating elitist consensus building and in cultural development in places like Australia. The Corporation’s ideals, values, prejudices, interests and assumptions tended to support business-orientated, white, Anglo-Saxon Protestant men (Lagemann 1989:6-8,104). Keppel’s aim was to the transmission of “traditionally elite culture…[through]… enlightening public taste directly”. In regard to the arts it was clear that “the goal was to elevate the “best taste” rather than “improve the average”. Under Keppel, classical styles in the fine arts, great literature and the sensibilities and habits associated with them, were seen as “essential to character and taste especially as culture became more susceptible to commercial standards and interests”. Keppel’s goal was to be achieved, not just through schools, but also via the diverting of popular interest in education to agencies like the library, adult education center and the art museum. E. Root (president of the Carnegie Corporation until 1932) echoed 1920 sentiment, when he directed that Corporation policy would follow the trend “for art education and art appreciation… to unite all of the arts in the common endeavor to educate the publics tastes and to train men and women who may interpret the arts to the body of the people” (Lagemann 1989:95,102,115,117).

1923 Le Corbusier held up an image of a pipe as an image of pure functionalism. See Foucault (OT 1982:60) See Magritte (1926).

1926 Réné Magritte (1898-1967) entitled a painting “Ceci n’est pas une pipe. See Foucault (1973).

1927 Marius Barbeau was an ethnologist who proposed the 1927 exhibition showing native and non-native artists side by side, Emily Carr and totem poles. “The interrelation of totem poles and modern paintings displayed in close proximity made it clear that the inspiration for both kinds of art expression sprang from the same fundamental background. One enhanced the beauty of the other and made it more significant. The Indian craftsmen were great artists in their way, and original; the moderns responded to the same exotic themes, but in terms consonant with their own traditions (Barbeau 1932:337-8 cited in Nemiroff 1992:23).”

1930 Canadian Handicrafts Guild organized an exhibition of Eskimo Arts and Crafts at the McCord Museum in Montreal. The exhibition attracted the attention of the New York Times (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11).

1936 Walter Benjamin wrote his influential essay “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” (1936) the aura is the source of all value in a deteriorating world. Aura as used by Walter Benjamin refers to “the associations which, at home in the mémoire involuntaire, tend to cluster around the object of a perception”(186). Its place in memory reveals that the aura is what has made the objects of the collector, the translator and the storyteller seem so meaningful “Once you have approached the mountains of cases in order to mine the books from them…what memories crowd in on you!”(66), he writes of his collection. He connects storytelling explicitly to memory. “Memory is the epic faculty par excellence”(97) and even employs the term “aura”The storyteller is the man who could let the wick of his life be consumed completely by the gentle flame of his story. This is the basis of the incomparable aura about the storyteller….The storyteller is the figure in which the righteous man encounters himself (108_9). The aura is elsewhere defined in these telling terms. Experience of the aura thus rests on the transportation of a response common in human relationships to the relationship between the inanimate or natural object and man….To perceive the aura of an object we look at means to invest it with the ability to look at us in return. This experience corresponds to the data of the mémoire involontaire (188). As one can see, before the essay “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” (1936) the aura is the source of all value in a deteriorating world. It grounds the practice of the collector, the storyteller and indirectly the translator for it lends to their activities a purposefulness they would otherwise not have, becoming only allegories of market strategies. It makes sense that he would have to declare war on this concept given the way those activities resemble market strategies even with their aura__ given, in fact, the resemblance of aura to ideology. Experience of the aura thus rests on the transportation of a response common in human relationships to the relationship between the inanimate or natural object and man….To perceive the aura of an object we look at means to invest it with the ability to look at us in return. This experience corresponds to the data of the mémoire involontaire (188). Crimp (OMR 1993:112) argued that art history adopts an approach modeled on kunstwissenschaft wherein art historians attempt to prove or disprove the aura or presence of the authentic, unique original aspects of works of art. Using chemical analysis or connoisseurship art historians can prove or disprove the authenticity of a work of art which assures its place in a museum. Museums reject copies and reproductions. The presence of the artist must be detected through the work of art or the claim of authenticity cannot be made. See Crimp (OMR 1993:112).

1941 The US was almost ready to join the war. American nationalism intensified. Marc Chagall invited by the Museum of Modern Art, arrived in New York the day the Germans invaded Russia. New York columnist Henry McBride claimed that Americans “had become the sole custodians of the arts” since the collapse of Europe. He vaunted the Museum of Modern Art, “Is not the museum asking us to take the hint and to return to these original sources and start our aesthetic life anew?” (McBride 1941 cited in Nemiroff 1992:29)

1930s-40s “In her recent book, The Death of Authentic Primitive Art and Other Tales of Progress (1998) anthropologist Shelly Errington traces the rise of the modernist paradigm of Authentic Primitive Art in the United States through a series of temporary exhibits, ranging from the 1914 exhibition at Alfred Stieglitz’s 219 Gallery in New York to the exhibits of African, Oceanic and American Indian Art at the Museum of Modern Art during the 1930s and 1940s to the permanent Museum of Primitive Art established in New York in 1957 (Phillips 2002:46-7).”

1941 The Museum of Modern Art in New York “staged a major exhibition called “Indian Art in the United States”, a seminal show which demonstrated that scholars and curators had recognised the unstoppable force of a key area of aesthetics and felt obliged to say: “Yes, we recognise this art, these artifacts, for the divinely inspired wonders which they often are.” One man who summed up what the American public was seeing, in many cases for the first time, was the ethnographer and anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss. “Before long,” he noted, “these works will appear in museums and galleries of fine art.” (Hensall 1999) See 1999 “The Back Half – Visions of another America” The New Statesman.

1941 The exhibition entitled the “Art of Australia” traveled to the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York and the National Gallery of Art Washington and the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa. The exhibition in Canada displayed different works of art than those shown in the US. The MoMA and the US National Gallery of Art were considered to be the most significant. Canada is a commonwealth country whose civic structure and population size is roughly similar to Australia’s. “These three venues set the parameters and context of the exhibition as a public event, configuring the show in a sequence of events in a bigger cultural picture that reveals the relationship of alliances that exists between governments and the deployment of culture as a tool of propaganda (Ryan, Louise 2002)”.

1947 André Malraux introduced his notion of the musée imaginaire or Museum Without Walls. “In his well known Museum Without Walls of 1947, André Malraux commented on the “fictitious” aspect of art books and observed that reproductions not only change the scale of original works, they also make them lose any sense of relative proportion when gathered together in such a way. Enlarged details, lighting, angle of shots, colour, everything metamorphoses the works. Furthermore, reproduction can bring side by side works of art that could never be seen together simply because they are housed in various institutions or scattered in different locations, indoors and outdoors, all over the world. The end result for Malraux was nothing less than an “imaginary museum”, an ideal art museum, as opposed to a real one, one that transformed the way art was experienced, appreciated and understood” (Malraux, 1956).

1949 In his 1949[1969] publication La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l’époque de Philippe II, Fernard Braudel irreversibly transformed the way history was written. The social science turn in historiography was propelled forward by Braudel’s methodology based on “la longue durée”. Braudel examined white writings on the surface of the profound oceans to explore societies in relation to their geographic environments, social structures, their trade routes and their intellectual histories. Braudel examined the geography, political economies and sociology of the cities, Venice, Milan, Genoa and Florence in the age of Phillip II. Images of the immobility of time in Borges map contrast with the rapid acceleration of time in traditional history where centuries and millenia were encapsulated into the lives of singular heroic figures from Alexander the Great, Caesar, Gengis Khan, Louis XIV to Napoleon (Braudel 1949[1969]).

1950s Whitney committed to MoMA orthodoxy-the preference for European modernism. Prior to 1950s the Whitney was committed to realist art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art (MOMA) was considered to be an elitist, right of center museum dedicated to exhibiting the aesthetic tastes of the New York establishment.

1953 Charles and Peter Gimpel opened an exhibition of Inuit art entitled “Eskimo Carvings” in May in London, England at the gallery they had opened in 1946 (Vorano 2004:9-18). An illustrated catalogue was produced for the exhibition. Vorano argues that this was a pivotal exhibition introducing Inuit art internationally. Charles Gimpel was a photographer who traveled to Canada’s far north in the 1950s and 1960s long before this became a popular tourist attraction. See Tippett and Gimpel (1994). Charles Gimpel and Terry Ryan visited Kingait in 1958 when James Houston was there. “Charles Gimpel had arranged an exhibition of Inuit art at his Gallery during the Coronation celebrations in 2 June of 1953, and the international press covered it Time International, Mayfair, The Observer, The Times. Every prominent newspaper in the western world was writing about this art, and Canadian critics decided that maybe there was something here they should take a look at.” It was terrific: the Museum of Modern Art in New York bought the first set of Cape Dorset prints. Governor General Vincent Massey gave an Inuit print to Princess Margaret as a wedding present.”

1953 James Houston met with his friend Eugene Power to discuss ways of marketing Inuit Art in the United States. Power, who owned and operated University Microfilms in Ann Arbor, established a non-profit gallery in Ann Arbor called Eskimo Art Incorporated to import the work. He encouraged the Cranbrook Institute of Science to host an exhibition of the work in 1953, the first exhibition of Inuit Art in the United States. In 2004 The Dennos Museum Center holds a collection of nearly 1,000 works of Inuit art from the Canadian Arctic. It is believed to be one of the largest and most historically complete collection of Inuit sculpture and prints in the United States. James Houston visited New York and Chicago to sell Inuit carvings and talk about their experience in the Canadian Arctic. Houston’s friend Eugene B. Power at the university at Ann Arbour, Michigan invited some colleagues including museum director Dr. Robert Hatt and anthropologist Bruce Inverarity, who began collecting Inuit art. Power began Eskimo Art, Inc Power’s foundation Eskimo Art Inc offered to purchase the entire Guild inventory of Inuit art although the Guild declined the offer. Guild president Jack Molson had informed James Houston that even though the quality of the works was improving the Guild did not have a large enough clientele to sell the work. Eskimo Art Inc later helped organize exhibitions of Inuit art including a travelling exhibition organized by the Smithsonian Institute in Washington. Houston described other early exhibitions at the Field Museum in Chicago and at the Museum of Natural History in New York. There were exhibitions in the States before Canadian galleries noticed (Houston 1995:146-8).

1957 “In her recent book, The Death of Authentic Primitive Art and Other Tales of Progress (1998) anthropologist Shelly Errington traces the rise of the modernist paradigm of Authentic Primitive Art in the United States through a series of temporary exhibits, ranging from the 1914 exhibition at Alfred Stieglitz’s 219 Gallery in New York to the exhibits of African, Oceanic and American Indian Art at the Museum of Modern Art during the 1930s and 1940s to the permanent Museum of Primitive Art established in New York in 1957 (Phillips 2002:46-7).”

1959 The Vancouver Museum and the Art Gallery of the University of British Columbia welcomed young innovative artists of their region. Roy Kiyooka added his New York influence to Jack Shadbolt’s charisma at the Vancouver School of Fine Arts. Vancouver because of its closer ties to the American west coast, Seattle and San Francisco, was not evolving in an artistic vacuum. See Withrow (1972:12.)

1960 Michael Spock director of the Boston Children’s Museum adopted a missionary zeal in development and implementation of hands-on visitor-centred learning experiences in museum display. Based on his own learning experience as a dyslexic in a well-known and politically liberal family, Spock focused on a concept of aesthetics which was linked to comfort in learning. He used interactive materials in the museum space prior to developing the exhibition to ask viewers what they wanted to know about the exhibition content. He and Oppenheimer were among the pioneers in hands-on museum display (Gurian 1991:180 in Karp and Levine).

1960s and 1970s Canada experienced a major expansion of museums through the late 60’s and 70’s, an expansion often inspired and led by volunteers.

1960s Photography was ‘discovered’ as an art form. Robert Rauschenberg and Andy Warhol began to silkscreen photographic images onto the canvases. Through this process photography contaminated the purity of modernism’s separate categories of painting and sculpture. See Crimp, (On the Museums Ruins 1993:77).

1964 The artist Marcel Broodthaers held an exhibition at the Galerie Saint-Laurent in Brussels. He explained that until that time he had been good for nothing so he decided to try to create. His admission of bad faith, of the commodization of art, made of him a creator of ‘museum fictions’. “Fiction enables us to grasp reality and at the same time that which is veiled by reality.” See Crimp (1993:201).

1965 Ian Smith, the Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) signed the Declaration of Independence. Museums in Rhodesia reflected the anti-black stance of the government. Africans were discouraged from patronizing museums. The cultural heritage of Africans of Zimbabwe was very rich. Material culture included numerous objects that were aesthetic, sophisticated, innovatice, original and ingenious. Artifacts were collected by third parties, such as farmers, missionaries. These collections were then acquired by museums so that there was no relationship between the ethnographer and the object. The original environment and social context of the object were of no interest to the museum since their was no value assigned to the entire culture of Africans of Zimbabwe. A policy of centralization of research collections was adopted and implemented between 1979 and 1981. No African traditions of Zimbabwe were collected in the archives until 1977. They had clearly set up museums as white culture houses. When Robert Mugabe, first black prime minister of Zimbabwe first came to power in 1981? he called for a reconciliation of the political, economic, cultural identities of Zimbabwe. Cultural institutions through collections and galleries are the central artery of communication as providers of education and information. Some argued that cultural institutions in Rhodesia, like museums, were a European concept that could not be adapted to the needs of a pluralistic society like Zimbabwe. See Munjeri in Karp and Lavine.

1967 Federal and provincial governments built historical parks. Students wore period costumes and took on roles of their forefathers as a summer job. Canadians were learning to be proud of being Canadian. Tourism was on the rise.

1968 But in Krauss’ narrative, by the late 1960s video and television were rendering film obsolete; Broodthaers’ Musee d’Art Moderne signaled a loss of confidence in medium in retooling the readymade to embrace the entirety of commercial dross. In so doing Broodthaers further registered the classifying and collecting functions of the museum as a practice heading toward obsolescence See EndNote entry under Krauss (1999).
1970 Museum workers including Leah Inutiq, at the newly founded institution Nunatta Sunaqutangit organised an exhibition of Inuit Art during the Royal Visit to Frobisher Bay, NWT.

1970s According to d’Anglure (2002:227) new generation of educated Inuit, including the founders of Igloolik Isuma like Paul Apak and political leader Paul Quassa, began to visit archives, museums and libraries to learn more about the past and about shamanism. Research into the past intensified along with negotiations for Nunavut and self-government. (D’Anglure 2002:227).

1970 Minimalist artist Richard Serra moved his work outside museum walls by building Spiral Jetty in the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

1971 Doris Shadbolt was one of the curators of the exhibition “Sculpture of the Inuit: Masterworks of the Canadian Arctic” which opened at the Vancouver Art Gallery.

1971 The Multiculturalism Policy and its attendant Canadian Multicultural Act were adopted. “The federal multicultural program formalised support for the idea of Canadian identity as constituted in its diversity of cultures, an idea that was only implicit in Massey-Lévesque. Multicultural diversity was designed to be the basis of the cultural pillar of Canada’s foreign and domestic policy. In many ways, its logic is the inverse of Massey-Lévesque. The aim of Massey-Lévesque was about building institutions that would unify a compartmentalised nation and about underlining Canada’s historical roots in Europe, primarily Britain and France, as a means to deflect Canadians from the pernicious influences of American culture.” See Ken Lum (1999).

1971 Duncan Cameron published his article distinguishing between the museum that plays a timeless, universal functions as a structured sample of reality, an objective model of reality (Cameron 1971:201. The museum as forum is a place for confrontation, experimentation and debate (Cameron 1971:197 cited in Karp 1991:3).” “In 1971 the Canadian museologist Duncan F. Cameron pointed out the museum’s need to develop both the functions as a temple and as a forum. Twenty years later he once more offers a critical analysis of the museum and the museum profession. Cameron still thinks the museum profession can form part of the vanguard for positive social change. One of the biggest problems, he finds in the conflicting values within the individual, who is constituted as an unholy trinity of private, professional and institutional persons. Each professional person will have to re-examine himself, the academic disciplines and the museum institution. To meet the challenges of tomorrow it is necessary with a change of heart, not only intellectualism.” (Gjestrum 1994).

1973 Daniel Buren published his influential article in Artforum entitled ‘Function of the Museum’.

1973 Marcel Broodthaers, produced a film entitled A Voyage on the North Sea.

1974 The Museum of Modern Art held a controversial exhibition entitled ‘Eight Contemporary Artists’ including the highly politicized Conceptual and Minimalist work. Minimalist artist and museum critic Daniel Buren cynically argued that works of art might as well be locked up in vaults to protect them since they are already so isolated from the world framed, encased in glass in museums. Burin’s contribution to the exhibition was striped panels and fragments representing these frames affixed to nearby corridor and garden walls. Vogue magazine’s Barbara Rose vented her anger against this complicity between the dominant bourgeois cultural institutions and politically-motivated critics of these institutions. She argued that artists like Buren were disenchanted and demoralized artists who sabotaged museums of prestigious museums like the MoMA. focused their aggression against art greater than their own. See Crimp (Museum Ruins:85).

1974 William Rubin responded to Rose in “The Museum Concept is not Infinitely Expandable” published in Artforum explaining that ‘museums are essentially compromise institutions invented by bourgeois democracies to reconcile the larger public with art conceived within the compass of elite private patronage’. Rubin predicted that museums are perhaps becoming irrelevant to the practices of contemporary art. He predicted the end of the period of modern art (c.1850-1970) which for over a century focused on the ‘easel painting concept with its connection to bourgeois democratic life and concurrently the development of private collections as well as the museum concept. See Crimp (Museum Ruins:87). Crimp (1993:281) described how Rubin attempted “to defend the museum against the charge that it had become unresponsive to contemporary art. He insisted that this art simply had no place in a museum, which he sees essentially as a temple for high art. This, of course, puts him in perfect accord with New York critic Hilton Kramer’s position. Crimp (1993) argued that ‘What is never acknowledged is that ignoring those forms of art which exceed the museum – whether the work of historical avant-garde or that of the present – will necessarily give a distorted view of history.”

1970s Museology became more professional as money increased. Their staff’s professional credentials trumped experienced volunteers.

1970s Feminist projects consisted of retrieval-of the re-presentation of work by women that had been “hidden from history,” as a result of the by now well-known joint effects of selective art criticism, art history, and museum practices. “ (Nochlin 1971, Kristeva 1980, Parker and Pollock 1981), Duncan, Broude and Garrard 1982, Pollock 1988, Tickner 1988, Lipton 1988, Rose in Holly 1997) Borrowing from Marxist ideology critiques, Pollock’s Vision and Difference (1988) contends that the only viable conceptual framework for the study of women’s artistic history is one that emphasizes the ways in which gender differences are socially constructed. While indebted to poststructuralist French feminist thinkers such as Julia Kristeva (who also wrote several important essays in art theory, such as “Motherhood According to Giovanni Bellini,” Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art, ed. Leon S. Roudiez, 1980), contemporary English-speaking feminists such as Pollock, Lisa Tickner (The Spectacle of Women: Imagery of the Suffrage Campaign, 1907-1914, 1988), Eunice Lipton (Looking Into Degas: Uneasy Images of Women and Modern Life, 1988), Carol Duncan (“Virility and Domination in Early Twentieth Century Vanguard Painting,” Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany, ed. Norma Broude and Mary Garrard, 1982), and Jacqueline Rose tend to focus on the articulation of sexual difference rather than on a definition of a specific female artistic sensibility. They simultaneously restore a certain power to images, for they emphasize that art is as capable of constituting ideology as it is of reflecting it–a political commitment that goes way beyond the mission of art history proposed by either the formalist tradition or the iconological method (See Feminist Theory and Criticism (Holly 1997).”

1977 Michel Foucault’s 1977 essay “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History” provides his most programmatic and most influential statement on the genealogical method is the essay. See Starn (2005).

1976 Brian O’Doherty’s well-known series of articles entitled “White Cube” published in Artforum provide a useful analysis of the modernist art gallery and museum, like the Museum of Modern Art in the 1970s which provide a “a white, ideal space that, more than any single picture, may be the archetypal image of twentieth-century art.” Referring to the architectural rhetoric of modern museums, he described how these spaces in their whiteness seem “possessed by other spaces where conventions are preserved through the repetition of a closed system of values,… [the] sanctity of the church, the formality of the courtroom, [and] … the laboratory…”White Cube

1978 President Carter established a commission, chaired by professional “survivor” Elie Wiesel, to create a national museum in Washington memorializing Jewish suffering in Europe (Finkelstein 2000).

1979 U’mista Cultural Centre is located in Alert Bay on Cormorant Island near the northern tip of Vancouver Island. It adjoins the former residential school, St. Michael’s Residential School. The objects now on display U’mista Cultural Centre and the Kwagiulth Museum and Cultural Centre (opened 1979) were part of major 1921 potlatch hosted by Dan Cranmer from Alert Bay. Potlatch ceremony was criminalized against harsh criticism by Franz Boas. These objects were all confiscated by the Indian agent at Alert Bay, William Halliday who was a ‘former Indian residential school administrator imbued with civilizing zeal’. In the 1950s and 1960s there was a general cultural resurgence. The movement for repatriation emerged. The Museum of Man in Hull (now the Canadian Museum of Civilization) and the Royal Ontario Museum agreed to their repatriation. At this time the two museums were built with private and government funding. Objects in these museums have an evocative power that includes a sense of ‘here’ as well as formal, aesthetic power. See James Clifford in (Karp and Lavine).

1979 Vogue‘s Barbara Rose published ‘American Painting: The Eighties’

1979 Two “large collections of potlatch regalia were returned to the communities of Alert Bay and Cape Mudge in British Columbia. They were housed in museums built specifically to receive them and financed by the federal government. Repatriation can be a deeply spiritual and powerful experience, as indicated in the Peigan Nation response to repatriation of their cultural materials.” RCAP

1980s Marcel Broodthaers’ controversial work led to a series of publications including a special edition of the journal October (1987) devoted to his role in the unsettling the role of museums. Broodthaers registered the classifying and collecting functions of the museum as a practice heading toward obsolescence See EndNote entry under Krauss (1999).

1982 The Metropolitan Museum of Art opened the Rockefeller Wing of Primitive Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art is considered to be a politically right of center museum, an establishment or elitist organization (Gurian 1991:178-9). The opening of the Rockefeller Wing was the culmination of “institutional validity” of the Primitive Art (Errington 1998 cited in Phillips 2002:46). Phillips summarized Errington’s argument that by the time Metropolitan Museum of Art opened this wing the distinction between purely authentic primitive art forms and cultural productions transformed by contact with the Other, that is, contaminating cultural (technological) influences leading to acculturation was already waning.

1982 Hans Haake participated in the Documenta 7 exhibition which was held at the Museum Fridericianum in Germany. Haake Oelgemaelde, Homage a Marcel Broodthaers in the Neue Gallery not in the Museum Fridericianum. His work was confrontational. On one wall was a detailed oil painting of Ronald Reagan which was in a gold frame and surrounded by classical museological framing devices. On the other was a gigantic photomural of a peaceful anti-Reagan demonstration protesting the deployment of cruise missiles to German soil held in Bonn a week prior . Artistic Director Rudi Fuchs presented a contradictory image. See Crimp (MR:238-9).

1983 Benedict Anderson wrote his influential “Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism” Census, map and museum are the three major institutions of power which shaped the way in which allowed the colonial state to imagine its dominion. These three institutions of knowledge management established systems of classification which nurtured a sense of identity in the emerging, imagined, national community. The museum served to classify, create hierarchies of value, store and served in a role of archontes of cultural traditions. (Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism.) [MFB: Museums, along with census and maps, were one of the three major colonializing agents producing infinitely reproducible symbols of tradition that constructed imagined communities. Museums as symbols of a hierarchy of power and order responds to the individual and community’s need-to-remember. The museum served to classify, create hierarchies of value, store and served in a role of archontes of cultural traditions. It is our limitation as humans constrained in serial time yet equipped with selective memories, that leaves us dependent on archives. Our long term memory is accessed through mechanisms that we do not yet fully comprehend, so we recall certain things but not others. Everyday life experiences provide individuals with an accumulation of events that evoke (sympathy) emotions. Remembering these sympathies repeated in small habits day after day, helps individuals to evaluate justice with greater lucidity and reason. Museums provide ] These three institutions of power profoundly shaped the way in which the colonial state imagined its dominion. The census created ”identities” imagined by the classifying mind of the colonial state. The fiction of the census is that everyone is in it, and that everyone has one, and only one, extremely clear place. The map also worked on the basis of a totalizing classification. It was designed to demonstrate the antiquity of specific, tightly bounded territorial units. It also served as a logo, instantly recognizable and visible everywhere, that formed a powerful emblem for the anticolonial nationalism being born. The museum allowed the state to appear as the guardian of tradition, and this power was enhanced by the infinite reproducibility of the symbols of tradition. Chapter 11: Memory and Forgetting Awareness of being embedded in secular, serial time, with all its implications of continuity, yet of ”forgetting” the experience of this continuity, engenders the need for a narrative of ”identity.”

1984 The Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art, New York hosted an exhibition entitled Primitivism in 20th Century Art which juxtaposed modern artworks with masks from Zaire, Nigeria and Inuit masks. McEvilley (1984) criticized the premise of the exhibition and inaugurated debates on representation of culture. Danto (1987) argued that the juxtapositioning was false and inane. The Museum of Modern Art held an exhibition entitled “Primitivism in 20th Century Art” which was attacked by critic Thomas McEvilley, who called for a rejection of Eurocentricism in cultural history. This opened debates on representation of cultures with a more sophisticated approach to discussions of Self and the Other that continued throughout the 1980s.

1984 The Maori exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum created tensions over ethnohistorical exhibitions. The ethnological and historical background material was rejected as nonsensical by the Maori elders revealing how deeply marginalized groups want to ‘define their own heritage’ and launching debates about institutional procedures (Lavine and Karp 1991:2)


1984
The MOMA held an exhibition in 1984 entitled “An International Survey of Recent Painting and Sculpture, in which curator McShine excluded many important artists. AT&T Corporation sponsored the exhibition. Their interests were in accord with the exhibition’s. Innovation and experimentation were valued in business, industry and the arts. One of the new acquisitions of the Architecture and Design Galleries at the MOMA was a Bell 47D helicopter which was considered to be a coup de théatre. These helicopters are manufactured by the same corporation Textron, that builds the Huey model used against civilians in El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala. “Contemporary art of exhibition has taught us distinguish between the political and the aesthetic. A New York Times editorial described how, “A helicopter suspended from the ceiling, hovers over an escalator in the Museum of Modern Art . . . . The chopper is bright green, bug-eyed and beautiful. We know that it is beautiful because MOMA showed us the way to look at the 20th century.” See Crimp (1993:272-5).

1987 The exhibition catalogue (1987) was published for The Spirit Sings, an ethnographic exhibition of 106 artifacts sponsored by Shell Canada. The exhibition included cultural productions of the Tlinglit, Salish, Haida, Tsimshian (including the mate of the famous Musee de l’Homme prehistoric mask), Gitksan, Iglulik, Netsilik, Mackenzie Inuit, Copper Inuit, Qairnirmiut, Caribou Inuit, Sadliermiut, Southern Baffin, Labrador Inuit, Slavey, Kutchin, Athapaskan, Tahltan, Cree, Chipewyan, Tanaina, Ojibwa, Assiniboin, Sioux, Plains Cree, Blood, Blackfoot, Sarsi, Red River Metis, Late Missippian, Ottawa, Cayuga, Iroquois, Huron, Woodlands, Mohawk, Montagnais (Innu?), Naskapi, Micmac, Maliseet and Boethuk spanning centuries. The goal of this exhibition was to enhance understanding and appreciation of ‘the spirit of Canada’s Native peoples. It was dedicated to the ‘people who produced the objects included in the exhibition. Eighty-five institutions loaned works for the exhibition which was shown at the Glenbow Museum in Calgary and the Lorne Building in Ottawa. The voluminous preparatory research undertaken by a team of anthropologists and ethnographers produced a vast archives of slides and text that remains as an invaluable lasting resource for all researchers. In her Introduction Harrison (Harrison 1987:7) grouped together all the native populations in Canada at the time of contact suggesting a unified and unifying pan-Aboriginal world-view informed by myths and legends.

1987 In his publication Museums of Influence, Kenneth Hudson described how he had visited 37 museums that made significant changes in the 200 years of museology. He dismissed ethnographic museums as those that exhibited objects from exotic cultures without attempting to communicate essentials features of the societies more easily conveyed through film, video or even lectures. He laments the absence of ambitions, fears, poverty, disease, climate, cruelty, brutality, blood, sense, smell and therefore cohesion to the exhibits. “Ethnographical museums collect widely but do not dig deeply” (Hudson 1987:vii) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1988 The “Lubicon Lake Cree organized a boycott of The Spirit Sings, the cultural showcase of the Winter Olympics in Calgary. Museums were asked not to lend objects for the display, and many people, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, refused to attend. The boycott did a great deal to raise awareness of the issues, and as a result of the conflict, the Assembly of First Nations (AFN) and the Canadian Museums Association (CMA) formed a task force with a mandate to “develop an ethical framework and strategies for Aboriginal Nations to represent their history and culture in concert with cultural institutions”.6 The task force report sets out guiding principles, policies and recommendations on repatriation and calls for the creation of new relationships to serve the needs of Aboriginal people and the interests of Canadian cultural and heritage institutions. (See Appendix 6A to this chapter for excerpts from the report.)” RCAP

1988 Marybelle Mitchell wrote an article entitled “Current Issues Facing Museums” published in the Inuit Art Quarterly. In 1988 200 delegates met.

1988 Clifford went on to give a powerful example from a museum. The Portland Museum of Art houses the Rasmussen Collection, a series of masks, [end of page 98] headdresses, and other objects collected from southeastern Alaska during the 1920s. When the museum made plans to reinstall and reinterpret the collection in the late 1980s, it decided to involve Tlingit elders as consultants from early stages. A dozen prominent elders, representing clans that originally owned the objects, were invited to travel to Portland, Oregon. During a planning session at the museum, objects were brought out, and elders were asked to speak about them. Clifford describes how he and the curatorial staff, focusing on the objects, waited expectantly for some sort of detailed explication about how each object functioned, who made it, what powers it had within Tlingit society. Instead, he reports, the object acted as memory aids for the telling of elaborate stories and the singing of many songs. As these stories and songs were performed, they took on additional meanings. An octopus headdress, for example, evoked narratives reaching about a giant octopus that once blocked a bay, preventing salmon from state and federal agencies regulating the right of Tlingits to take salmon, so what was started as a traditional story took on precise political meanings in terms of contemporary struggles. “And in some sense the physical objects, at least as I saw it, were left at the margin. What really took center stage were the stories and songs.” (1) From Julie’s Cruikshank “The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in the Yukon Territory”

1989 In 1989, “the editors of the first book on history museums in the United States complained about a “blanket of critical silence” surrounding the subject. In 1992, the British museum specialist Eilean Hooper-Greenhill observed that the museum as a historical institution had not received “any rigorous form of critical analysis.” Other scholars and critics chimed in around the same time.1 As it happened, a tidal wave of museum studies was just beginning to crest, many proclaiming critical agendas while complaining about their absence. The problem these days is how to navigate a flood of literature on the theory, practice, politics, and history of museums” (Starns 2005).

1989-90 Dr. Jeanne Cannizzo curated an exhibition mounted by the Royal Ontario Museum entitled “Into the Heart of Africa.” It was the most controversial show in the history of the ROM. A vocal opposition arose against cultural racism and appropriation. Cannizzo stated that the goal of the exhibition was to represent the impact of colonialism on Africa. However the 375 artifacts from central and west Africa used were donated around 1889 and onwards to the ROM by Canadian missionaries and military personnel who spent some time in Africa and fully supported Britain’s colonial campaign which imposed “Christianity, civilization and commerce” on Africans. Cannizzo misread her audiences and attempted to use the postmodern trope of irony to draw attention to racist terms such as ‘barbarous customs.’ In fact there were at least two divergent audiences. A misinformed general public read the exhibition as a uncritical cultural exhibition of primitive Africa and the good work of Canadian missionaries and soldiers. The large African-Canadian population of Toronto interpreted the exhibition as a racist assault. A slide show lecture containing highly derogatory, culturally racist, and paternalistic language played framed with a critical introduction and conclusion to situate viewers within the racist colonial context. But most people read it as ‘real’ without the critical postmodern lens of irony. Tour guides had no training in colonial histories or cultural sensitivities and presented the exhibition literally without understanding the critical ironic trope. The guide explained to Grade five children how missionaries taught Africans to carve wood and described African barbaric acts. “This case study crystallizes many of the issues related to cultural racism and cultural appropriation. Nourbese Philip (1993) suggests that at the heart of the ROM controversy are changing beliefs about the role and function of museums and other cultural institutions, especially the issue of who should have the power to represent and control images created by “others.” The traditional values and practices of institutions such as museums are difficult to change. One analyst poses an important question about the ROM controversy: Would the institution have supported a more critical approach to the subject? Would it have risked offending its important patrons, some of whom donated artifacts to the collection? (Butler, 1993:57).”(See the Colour of Democracy).

1990 ? Crossroads of Continents exhibition at the Museum of Natural History disseminated new research and scholarly understandings (in Karp and Levine 1991:315)

1990s There has been an exponential growth of the number of local museums and the expansion of large museums in the 1990s has been referred to as the big bang by former ICOM director Hugues de Varine.

1991 This is a performance art piece by poststructuralist artist. Her work is situated under institutional criticism. In it Andrea Fraser toured an exhibition of the work of contemporary artist Allan McCollum shown at the American Fine Arts Gallery in New York City. She presented the tour in two voices, her own and that of Ms. Jane Castleton), a fictional character, Fraser’s alter ego who was a museum volunteer docent with little understanding of modern art.

1991 Rabbi Michael Berenbaum was project director of the Holocaust Memorial Museum. Public awareness of the holocaust had heightened since 1978. Jewish suffering was once considered to be a footnote of WWII. This was changed and the horrendous crime was acknowledged.

1991 Ayanna Black (1991:27 in Creane cited in Barrett 2004) critiqued the Royal Ontario Museum’s infamous exhibition “Into the Heart of Africa.” She described the situation as follows, “They used the propaganda of the period without proper explanation or preamble. [The curator] did not want to manipulate the material, but she ended up implanting racist images because the critique of ‘intellectual arrogance’ did not come through. People missed it.” Cannizzo, a contract curator who had trained as a social and cultural anthropologist had done fieldwork experience in Sierra Leone misread her audience.

1991 Mieke Bal (1991) critiqued the Royal Ontario Museum’s infamous exhibition “Into the Heart of Africa” in a diachronics article entitled “The Politics of Citation.” He argued that the reproduction of racist, colonial imagery leads to reinscribing the very attitudes and assumptions that the critic is attempting to expose and analyse. Great care must be made to frame this imagery in such a way that the critique – and not the racist content – predominate. It is fair to ask whether ‘Into the Heart of Africa” did this. Many of the images were troubling for viewers who felt assaulted by the racist perspective embodied (Bal 1991:31 PC in D); museology, politics of representation;

1991 Lee-Ann Martin submitted her commissioned report to the Canada Council entitled “The Politics of Inclusion and Exclusion: Contemporary Native Art and Public Art Museums in Canada.” It was the catalyst for the Visual Arts Section’s Acquisition Assistance Program (1996-9) offering monetary incentives to encourage Canada’s fifty-six public galleries to purchase contemporary art by Canada’s First Peoples (Jessup 2002:xxv).

1991 Kenneth Hudson in “Misleading Ethnographical Museums” argued that experts in ethnography are “very knowledgeable about what is usually described as the “traditional culture” [..] but are much less informed about what is going on in the same country today” (Hudson 1991:459). He continued his argument that this lack of knowledge of the contemporary everyday life is acceptable in an exhibition of ancient Roman art since most museum goers are familiar with Italian culture today. It is less neither responsible nor constructive to exhibit traditional artefacts from Ghana without contextualizing them, since the average person may have the impression that Ghana today has remained as it was hundreds of years ago. He recognised that objects alone cannot convey the ambiguities and contradictions of contemporary everyday life of Bombay or Accra or even small town England. He praised an exhibition called Hunters of the North at the Museum of Mankind in London, UK for an installation showing families in the ‘traditional’ igloo and the portable hut. Did this exhibition manage to show anything of

1991 ROM under fire again over 1990 African exhibit: advisory panel members demanding unequivocal apology. ROM hoping to mend fences: Museum plans exhibition of Caribbean festival costumes. A rich sampling of Caribbean traditions: you may want to dismiss this ROM festival [ Caribbean Celebrations] as another crowd- pleasing gesture, but the centrepiece exhibit is worth catching

1992 “In 1992, the British museum specialist Eilean Hooper-Greenhill observed that the museum as a historical institution had not received “any rigorous form of critical analysis.” Other scholars and critics chimed in around the same time.1 As it happened, a tidal wave of museum studies was just beginning to crest, many proclaiming critical agendas while complaining about their absence. The problem these days is how to navigate a flood of literature on the theory, practice, politics, and history of museums” (Starns 2005).

1992 Assembly of First Nations [AFN] and Canadian Museums Association [CMA], Task Force Report on Museums and First Peoples, Turning the Page: Forging New Partnerships Between Museums and First Peoples (Ottawa: 1992).

1994 The Heard Museum hosted a conference entitled “Navajo Weaving since the Sixties” attended by forty weavers and who presented detailed statements about their work. M’Closkey (2002:230-3) noted a sharp contrast between the presentations by the weavers and those made by dealers, museologists and textile experts who spoke of gallery aesthetics, the history of Navajo weaving and the quality of market-friendly rugs. Gloria Emerson of the Centre for Cultural Exchange at a New Mexico art institution commented on the chasm between the weavers and the scholars. She argued that the weavers should be generating the questions discussed at these conferences (M’Closkey 2002:233).

1994 Today “there are several reasons to stress the importance of local museums. At the same time we find big museums growing even bigger and observe an explosion in the number of small museums all over the world . The former ICOM director Hugues de Varine calls this a big-bang in the museum world, which makes it necessary to separate museums in two very different types: the process-museum and the institution-museum, the latter being the traditional museum” (Gjestrum 1994).

1996 A conference organized by the Department of Ethnography of the British Museum entitled “Imagining the Arctic: The Native Photograph in Alaska, Canada and Greenland” was held in London, UK. Guest speakers included George Quviq Qulaut (Commissioner for Nunavut), Hugh Brody, Nelson Graburn, Elizabeth Edwards of Oxford’s Pit River Museum, Kesler Woodward, Alan R. Marcus who “explored the relationships between government policy and images of the Ahiarmut, as backdrop to the disastrous arctic relocations of the 1950s, Peter Geller presented hia paper on “Archibald Lang Fleming, first Anglican Bishop of the Arctic, as he disseminated a fascinating view of the “Eskimo” through his publications and lantern slide lectures; this was followed by a contemporary example of northern image-making, as Zebedee Nungak presented a series of slides documenting the recent political history of northern Quebec, as carried out by photographers for the Makivik Corporation of the Inuit of Nunavik.” See Peter Geller’s report.

1997-8 Statistics Canada reports that for the year 1997/98, there were some 46,400 volunteers directly engaged in museums and related heritage institutions. This represents about 65 % of the museum workforce on a national basis, including full-time and part-time paid workers. This does not include the vast network of related organizations, such as local Friends of Museums societies, historical societies and community service organizations, all of which contribute greatly to the work of their museums. Volunteers contribute to virtually all facets of museum operations, from facility maintenance, to administration, collections management, events management and public programming. The distribution of volunteers varies greatly across the country. For example, they represent over 95 % of the work force at museums in one province.” MUSE

1998 The first exhibition entitled “First Peoples, First Contacts” at the Museum of Man’s Gallery of North America at its new location at Bloomsbury opened. It was sponsored by the powerful Chase Manhattan Bank. The exhibition tells the story of the interaction of native Americans with the outsiders. The First Nations peoples represented in the Gallery are for the most part unfamiliar even to North Americans. They are represented as “half-forgotten, disgracefully patronised, different and enduringly fascinating peoples.” The story of curious Columbus is depicted without the usual overly romanticized sentiment. He is portrayed as the first of an onslaught of the “blatantly greedy and bigoted arrivistes, colonialists, sharks and expropriators.” Gallery of North America will feature rotating temporary exhibitions and will stay in situ for at least five years. See Henshall (1999) and J. C. H. King (1998) First Peoples, First Contacts, Museum of Mankind, London, UK: Chase Manhattan Gallery.

1999 Meanwhile, the museum was also being thoroughly absorbed by the markets and industries of culture under late capitalism.” See EndNote entry under Krauss (1999).

1999 Rosalind Krauss (1999) published a book entitled A Voyage on the North Sea criticizing art forms like his that had in her view, become fashionably vacuous, a shibboleth– installation art. “Krauss reflects that the notion of the specificity of medium as a foundation of the modern was shaken by Broodthaers ‘s practice and by the introduction of video technology in the 1960s. She anchors her historical narrative in the writing of Greenberg and Fried (in the latter’s reading of Maurice Merleau-Ponty) and in paintings by Jackson Pollock and Color Field painters, the sculptures of Richard Serra, and the structuralist films of Michael Snow, all of which registered a ‘new idea of aesthetic medium’ in new artistic conventions of opticality, which Krauss describes as foregrounding a ‘phenomenological vector’ in art that connects an object to a viewing subject. She forwards the notion that the construction of physical structure, even within the making of film, is constitutive of modern art: “For, in order to sustain artistic practice, a medium must be a supporting structure, generative of a set of conventions, some of which, in assuming the medium itself as their subject, will be wholly specific to it, thus producing an experience of their own necessity” (26). See EndNote entry under Krauss (1999).

2000 Izzie Asper became Canada’s new media lord as head of Canwest Global Communications. “After acquiring most of Hollinger’s newspapers and magazines, including half of the National Post, Asper now stands to be the most powerful figure in the history of Canadian media. A relentlessly tough businessman, he made a rather unexpected power play to dethrone Conrad Black and, although he might not be as grandiose about it, he now has more clout within Canada than Black ever did.” (Pundit Magazine). “Today, CanWest is one of Canada’s most profitable communication companies. In fiscal 2000 its net earnings were $162 million, with revenues totalling $1.08 billion and operating profits of $263 million. In July 2000, CanWest acquired most of Canada’s leading newspapers, as well as a 50 per cent stake in one of the country’s national dailies, The National Post. Earlier that month, federal regulators approved CanWest’s purchase of eight television stations, an acquisition that created Canada’s second-largest private television network under the banner of Global TV. Long before that, the corporation had forged an international broadcasting presence in New Zealand, Australia and Ireland” (Manitoba Government).

2004 Inuit artist Isaaci Etidloie and x Ashoona, daughter of renowned carver Kiaksuk Ashoona were among the Canadian Aboriginal artists present for the opening of the exhibition entitled Dezhan ejan – “medicine song” at the art gallery of the Canadian Embassy in Washington. The opening of the exhibition jointly sponsored by the Canada Council Art Bank and the Canadian Embassy took place in conjunction with the opening of the National Museum of the American Indian () at the Smithsonian. Ruth Phillips wrote the exhibition promotional brochure. Michael Kergin, Ambassador of Canada to the United States, stated, “Dezhan ejan is an expression of the unique and vibrant culture of Canadian Aboriginal artists. The ties between Aboriginal peoples in North America are long and rich in history, and continue to grow. It is our hope that the exhibition will serve to inform and expand this relationship, not only among Aboriginal communities, but for all Canadians and Americans.” Victoria Henry, Director of the Art Bank curated the exhibition of 18 works selected from the Canada Council’s collection of aboriginal art (Canada Council Press Release 2004). MFB

1904. Exposition in St. Louis displayed Phillipino natives. The US had recently annexed the Phillipines

Posted by: Maureen Flynn-Burhoe | October 3, 2009

Mi’kmaq Social History

The Mi’gmak were part of the Wabanki confederacy of independent clans led by patrilineal chiefs who met at intervals for regional consultations (Denys 1672, LeClerq 1691 in Dorey 1993).

Time Immemorial: Mi’kmac textile industry, quillwork, splint baskets, woven rugs, continues throughout centuries.

Mi’kmaq spirituality prior to conversion to Christianity included prayers, fasting, chanting, and praising Kisulkip. Sweatlodges alasutmokon were called “places of prayer.”

Mi’kmaq like other First Nations used wampum belts of rows of coloured beads to record consultations and transactions. Council discussions were recorded on Wampum Belts by each tribe to record its history. Rows of coloured beads were used to record meeting transactions. Reading Wampum belts demanded special skills in deoding. The Mi’kmaq wampum belt was last seen at Chapel Island in the 1940s.

1450 Mi’kmaqs used fish weirs to fish on rivers. 90% of the ancestors’ food came from the water. The ancestors lived in wikwams and wove textile carpets. Each animal was so respected that for example, all parts of the moose were used including the hooves which were medicinal. A wide variety of plants were used for healing.

1500 English, Portuguese, Breton, Basque Fishers fish and hunt whale off Mi’kmaq coastlands

1550 Fishers begin to preserve fish using Mi’kmaq method instead of salting which freed the holds of ships for more trade goods. Trade with Mi’kmaq increased.

1600’s First permanent French settlements along reclaimed marshlands

1600-1753 The French cohabiting with Mi’kmaq on Mi’kmaq lands. Mi’kmaq shared stories with French who recorded them.

1600-1700 Epidemics decimated 75% of Mi’kmaq population

1613 French – British war begins in Acadia

1613-1913 Three hundred years of Mi’kmaq conversion to Roman Catholic religion led to some blending of belief systems.

1650 All large furbearing animals on Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island are gone from overhunting.

1675 -1783 Peace and Friendship Treaties: Mi’kmaq negotiated a series of significant treaties.

1713 Louisbourg built

1740 Mi’kmaq traded moose hide with French

1749 Governor Cornwallis brought 2500 settlers to Mi’kmaq lands in NS.

1749-52 Extermination policy Cornwallis and Lawrence offered bounties for Mi’kmaq scalps

1755 Expulsion of the Acadians deeply hurt Mi’kmaq since these two communities shared many bonds. Families of mixed marriages were separated when the British forced Acadians to leave.

1750 Mi’kmaq used sealskin for gun cases, had silver buckles

1756-63 Treaty of Paris ended Seven Years War with a British victory. Mi’kmaq leaders are not included in negotiations concerning their lands. European settlements in Yarmouth, Shelbourne, Lunenberg, Port Royal, Halifax, Louisbourg, Charlottetown, Fort la Joie, Amherst…

1760s Influx of Loyalists on Mi’kmaq land

1762 Belcher’s Proclamation protected Mi’kmaq land rights.

1776-1867 In the northern half of British North America there were about 100,000 Europeans living in either Atlantic Canada or the St. Lawrence River area. First Nations outnumbered Europeans by at least two to one.

1800 The Name of Kluskap began to appear in traveller’s writings.

1867 British North America Act Post Confederation assumption that Mi’kmaq could be integrated into dominant society.

1895 Elders like Sally Mitchell, Rocky Point continued to use traditional medicine and teach traditional ways.

1899 Mi’kmaq language is one of world’s richest in vocabulary (Rand 1899)
Oyster fishing, Mi’kmaq attempt farming but aggressive expropriation of land curtails success. Lennox Island projects include cultivated blueberry farming.

1900 – Tuberculosis and polio epidemics

c. 1900 Rocky Point children are refused access to education because their parents have TB.

1911 Indian Act Large scale expropriation of Mi’kmaq lands and forced removal of Mi’kmaq residents.

1914-18 Mi’kmaq serve in WWI

1927 Indian Act forbids speaking of Mi’kmaq

1930s Depression: Mi’kmacs were like numerous poor whites who struggled through unemployment, poverty and disease.

1930s-1950s? Residential schools, like Shubenacadie using aggressive assimilation strategies and abuse caused intergenerational damage.
Mi’kmaq serve in WWII

1940s Debert archaeological site found

1950s Welfare Act. Bill C-31 1985, and SC judgments of 1995 continued to cause tensions.

1951 Indian Act deepens a crisis of identity

1960s Debert archaeological site carbon dating acknowledges indigenous land occupation since c.2500 years ago.

1969 White Paper called for assimilation of all First Nations peoples, the abrogation of their treaties, end of land claims, Trudeau rejected the White Paper in 1970.

1969 NIB formed

1969 Union of NS Indians formed

1972 NIB publisehd Control of Indian Education Policy Paper

1970s Augustine Mound archaeology project revealed Metepenanqiaq on Miramichi as oldest Red Bank, Mi’kmaq village with artefacts from 2500 years ago

1970s Revitalization of Mi’kmaq culture began

1980s – Youth suicide epidemic begins?: Mi’kmaq youth suicide rates are among highest in Canada.

1987 Grand Council of Mi’kmaq confirmed that pre-Confederation treaty ensured Mi’kmaq separate national identity and right to self-government

1990 Federal and provincial governments were shamed internationally when South African anti-apartheid leader gave a scathing review of his visit to a remote First Nations community

1990 Determined, informed, sophisticated and resourceful aboriginal leaders shifted the balance of power between the federal and aboriginal peoples through a brilliant strategy that led to the failure of the Meech Lake Accord. Move from reserves to cities.

1990s University educated First Nations lead protests at Oka

1992 Mi’kmaq visual artists contributed strong political statements through art at NGCand MCC exhibitions.

1993 Mi’kmaq hold Art as Healing Symposium

1993-4 United Nations scathing report on Canadian human rights records vis-à-vis First Nations

1994 Mi’kmaq self-government proposed

1994 Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples drafted at United Nations

c. 1995? Quebec Provincial Police, Federal fisheries officers waged war on Mi’kmaq fishers at Restigouche, Eel River, Burnt Chruch

1995-6 RCAP examined historical and contemporary tensions concerning relations between Aboriginal Peoples of Canada and settlers.

1996 Atlantic Policy Congree of First Nations Chiefs formed to develop culturally relevant alternatives to federal policies.

1999 c.6,500 Mi’kmaq speakers

1999 Rita Joe received Order of Canada

CC Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2004. Mi’kmaq Social History > Google Docs. Uploaded December 2007. http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=ddp3qxmz_446ccmjshg9

Posted by: Maureen Flynn-Burhoe | October 2, 2009

Inuit Social History Timeline v.2009-10-02

As I track Speechless statistics I noticed a growing interest in content collected as background to my graduate studies on the role of memory work and the historical and ethical components of stories told about Inuit, that I had uploaded to Web 2.0 sites through the Creative Commons License 3.0. I will slowly update and maintain if interest continues. This was developed as complementary material to my teaching, learning and research and is not intended as a comprehensive timeline. Speechless has been visited c. 250 times a day over the last week with a total of 145,000 visits (2009-10-02). Maureen Flynn-Burhoe

Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 1992-2009. “Timeline of Inuit Social History.” https://socialhistorytimelines.wordpress.com. Last updated October 2, 2009. Accessed xxxxxx. short url: http://wp.me/pEVEP-3

Previous iterations of this include:

2006-12 inuitartwebliography

2007-11-03 Creative Commons 2.5 Flynn-Burhoe, 1992 -2007, “Timeline of Inuit Social History.” >> Speechless http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=ddp3qxmz_382htsngp Last updated November 30, 2007.

Timeline of Inuit Social History

9000 BC Ice Age came to an end. Arctic climate warmed.

7000 BC Dogsleds used by Palaeo-Eskimo in northern Siberia?

3000 BC The Denbigh culture of western and northern Alaska dates as far back as this.

2500 BC Migration Theory: Paleao-Eskimos migrating across Arctic North America. (in McGhee, Robert)

2200 – 1500 BC Stable northern climate.

2000 BC Umingmak Palaeo-Eskimo site on Banks Island.

c.1700 BC Oldest known Early Palaeo-Eskimo portrait of a human, an ivory maskette found on Devon Island.

1800 BC Palaeo-Eskimos occupied most Arctic regions. Independence culture musk-ox hunters of the extreme Arctic regions.

2000 BC – 1 AD Worldwide environmental change. In the north: the first chill. Cooler summers.

2000 BC Cooler conditions set in North.

500 – 1 BC Early Dorset Tyara maskette found at Hudson Strait.

1 – 1500 Dorset culture.

1 – 600 AD Middle Dorset culture: Igloolik flying bear carving.

500s AD Legend: Irish monks in currachs sailed west and north?

800s AD Eric the Red and 1500 Icelanders travelled to Greenland’s southwest coast? The Norse landed in Labrador before

1000 AD and attempted to colonize along the coasts of Ungava, Baffin Island and Labrador. They were the first Europeans to reach the Canadian Arctic. (Hessell 1998:7)

1000s – 1960s Inuit inhabited the area now encompassed by Ukkusiksalik National Park, Nunavut (see Wager Bay, Repulse Bay). Five hundred archeological sites, including an old Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) trading post have already been noted by archeologists and researchers. Ukkusiksalik (inuktitut) “where there is (soap) stone (steatite) for carving pots. Ukkusik (pot, saucepan like qulliq).

650 – 1250 AD Mediaeval Warm Period in Arctic North America.(McGhee 1997).

600 – 1300 AD Late Dorset culture, wand found on Bathurst Island.

1100 – 1700 AD Thule culture: bow-drill handle found near Arctic Bay, Baffin Island; swimming bird and birdwoman figurines found in the Eastern Arctic. (Illustration Hessel 1998:17)

c.1650 – 1840 AD Little Ice Age forced the Thule to break up into small, nomadic groups.

1576 ?Martin Frobisher, an uneducated pirate-mariner attempted to find the Northwest Passage. He encountered Inuit on Resolution Island. Five sailors jumped ship and became part of Inuit mythology. The homesick sailors tired of their adventure attempted to leave in a small vessel and vanished. Frobisher brought an unwilling Inuk to England. On his next trip to Baffin Island an Inuit hunter shot Frobisher in the buttocks with an arrow after Frobisher had lost a wrestling match?

1585 John Davis voyaged up Davis Strait.

1602 Henry Hudson travelled to the whaling grounds of Spitsbergen which became a source of great wealth to the British.
1616 Robert Bylot and William Baffin sailed to Hudson Bay.

1670 Hudson’s Bay Company newly formed is granted trade rights over all territory draining into Hudson Bay. The fur trade develops.

1749 The first trading was established at Richmond Gulf.

c. 1749 Trade of small stone carvings. The HBC began trading glass beads to the Caribou Inuit in the 18th century. Women used them to decorate parkas. Ivory cribbage boards with skrimshaw engravings (like the whalers) ere the most popular. (Hessel 1998:24)

1742 Christopher Middleton’s Arctic explorations led him to Wager Bay, an inlet of the Hudson Bay which is now in Ukkusiksalik National Park, Nunavut.

1750s Moravian missionaries arrived in Labrador. (Hessell 1998:8)

1771 Moravian missionaries settled in Nain in northern Labrador heralding the beginning of the Historic Period. Well-crafted miniature carvings were traded with missionaries, whalers, explorers…

1770s – 1940s. The missionaries are said to have introduced the art of basketry to the Inuit (Watt 1980:13).

1771 Samuel Hearne of the HBC reached the Arctic coast at Coppermine.

1789 Alexander Mackenzie follows Mackenzie River to Beaufort Sea.

1880 British Crown transferred many of the Arctic Islands to Canada. These islands became part of the Territories. (Parker 1996:23)

1820. The “Hudson’s Bay Company opened a trading post called Great Whale River in 1820 on the site of today’s Kuujjuarapik. The main activities at the post were processing whale products of the commercial whale hunt and trading furs.” www

1821-3. D’Anglure (2002:205) stated that the British Naval Expedition (1821-3) led by Admiral Parry, which twice over-wintered in Foxe Basin, provided the first informed, sympathetic and well-documented account of the economic, social and religious life of the Inuit. Parry stayed in Igloolik over the second winter. Parry’s writings with pen and ink illustrations of Inuit everyday life (1824) and those of Lyon (1824) were widely read.

1822 William Parry’s expedition to Igloolik.

1833-1835Captain George Back made the first descent of the “Great Fish River” now the Back River.

1830s – 1860s. A man named (Jimmy?) Fleming (b. 1830s?1860s?) remained behind when the whaling ship left the north. He was given an Inuktitut name and he married an Inuk. Jimmy Fleming was a traveler; Jimmy Fleming was Scottish or English more likely Scottish perhaps with prominent eyebrows like Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming. His son was Jimmy Ekoomiak Fleming (c.1865-1950s), Sarah Ekoomiak’s grandfather. Annie Weetaltuk, Johnny Weetaltuk’s cousin knew the story about the man called Fleming and she told William Ekomiak the story.

1850s – 1950s Christian missionaries spread throughout Arctic. 1860 – 1915 Second wave of contact. Whaling in Hudson Bay with foreign whalers: Scottish, American particularly in the Roes Welcome Sound.

1856 Two Anglican Church Missionary Society members working in the Hudsons’ Bay region, John Horden, at Moose Factory, and E. A. Watkins at Fort George, were producing material in syllabics for Inuit. Watkins noted in his diary of June 19, 1856, that an Inuit youth from Little Whale River wanted to learn syllabics very much so he worked with Watkins. Horden in Moose Factory and Watkins collaborated on producing some Bible selections in Inuktitut. Re: Sarah Ekoomiak’s story.

1861 Edward Belcher wrote an paper entitled ‘On the manufacture of works of art by the Esquimaux’ which is archived in the Department of Ethnography in the British Museum in London. See J. King Franks and Ethnography. This may be the first paper written on Inuit art., London, Department of Ethnography in the British Museum. http://pittweb.prm.ox.ac.uk/Kent/musantob/histmus5.html

1865 Pangnirtung has a long history associated with Scottish and American whaling. Whale oil made from animal fat was used as fuel. In 1865? petroleum was developed as fuel, replacing whale oil. Whaling had become became the largest industry in North America, with 20,000 American seamen out in a single whale-hunting from “… New England. P.(Houston, James. 1996:151).

1865 John Horden and Watkins met in London worked together to modify the Cree syllabic system to the Inuktitut language. The syllabic orthography was very easy to learn that and this enabled the Anglican Church to proselytize successfully over such a wide area of the Arctic. Inuit taught each other. With the assistance of well-travelled native assistants who worked with Peck, Bilby and Greenshield at Blacklead Island, and with Bilby and Fleming at Lake Harbour, a large number of Inuit who had never met a missionary nonetheless had access to the Bible and were able to read it in syllabics. Two of the best-known native assistants were Luke Kidlapik and Joseph Pudloo. As a boy Joseph Pudloo had learned syllabics in Reverend Fleming’ s senior class in Lake Harbour. Later he became Fleming’s sled driver, taking the missionary thousands of miles on visits to Inuit camps. After that he spent two years working with the Reverend B.P. Smith at Baker Lake, the first native assistant to work in a dialect markedly different from his own.

1865 Rawlings, Thomas. 1865. The Confederation of the British North American Provinces; Their Past History and Future Prospects; Including Also British Columbia & Hudson’s Bay Territory; With a Map, and Suggestions in Reference to the True and Only Practicable Route from the Atlantic London Sampson Low, Son, and Marston 1865, first edition, octavo, xii, [1] -244 pp., 4 plates, large folding map, original flexible cloth covered boards, covers detached but present, scattered light foxing to text, else a good, clean copy. Early efforts of the explorer, geographer and navigator, Hudson’s Bay Co., the fur trade, Red River Settlement, Rocky Mountains, discovery of gold, railroads, etc. The plates include two early views of Victoria, British Columbia, one of St. Paul, Minnesota and a farm scene. Eberstadt 133:851; Decker-Soliday IV:483; Lande 1408; TPL 4442; Peel 206; Sabin 68006

1873 North-West Mounted Police.

1876 Reverend Peck established the first permanent Christian mission in Inuit territory at Little Whale River near Richmond Gulf.

1880 British Crown transferred many of the Arctic Islands to Canada. These islands became part of the Territories. (Parker 1996:23)

1880 The Indian Affairs Department was established. “Since Confederation, the responsibility for Indian Affairs and Northern Development rested with various government departments between 1873 and 1966. The minister of the Interior also held the position of Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs after the Indian Affairs Department was established in 1880.”

1880s – Whalers from San Francisco and Seattle whaled in the Beauford? Sea. They wintered at Herschel Island. (Parker 1996:22) American whalers hunted in eastern Arctic. Greenlandic Inuit hunted on Ellesmere Island (Tester 1993:14).
1882 An Anglican mission was established in Kujjuarapik in 1882 and a Catholic mission in 1890.

1883 Regina was named as capital of the Northwest Territories. The railway reached Regina. (Parker 1996:23)

1883-4 Anthropologist Franz Boas, studies Inuit culture, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island.

1884 Reverend Peck established a mission at Fort Chimo, Kuujuak, to help Reverend Sam Stewart who established the second mission in Inuit territory.

1885? Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming (c.1885-1950s) was born? He died when he was 65? He became a Christian. He was not tall. Jimmie Ekoomiak loved children. He played with Sarah like a child would play. Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was a fiddler and he taught his sons Charlie and Thomas. Thomas bought the fiddle from Eaton’s catalogue for $15. His father, a traveller, Jimmy Fleming (b. 1830s?1860s?) was Scottish or English more likely Scottish perhaps with prominent eyebrows like Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming.

1887-1905 Frederick Haultain, a Conservative, was premier of the Northwest Territories. Sir Wilfred Laurier was Prime Minister. Haultain was born in England and came to Canada when he was three. He discouraged party politics and believed in consensus (Parker 1996:25).

1888 The first Legislative Aseembly was held with 22 elected members. Arguments started over the control of the public purse. The Federal Government held the Advisory Council responsible for governmental expenditures without giving them full control over taxation and financial transfers. (Parker 1996:24),

1890s, early 1900s. The catechist Reverend Fleming traveled thousands of miles with Joseph Pudloo visiting Inuit camps, teaching syllabics along with their missionary work for the Anglican Church Missionary Society.

1893 Franz Boas’ went to Baffin Island and Northern British Columbia to gather ethnographic material for the 1893 Smithsonian’s World’s Columbian Exposition. There was an ethnographic exhibit including “Esquimaux snapping whips and in their kayaks…”

1896? Reverend Edmund Peck introduced syllabics as a written form of Inuktitut. His system was adapted from Reverend Evan’s syllabic system adopted by the Cree.

1898 Yukon was created as separate territory. Gold was discovered. (Parker 1996:25).

1900 Scottish mine owners open a mica and graphite mine near Lake Harbour and employed Inuit miners.

1901 Film clip of Inuit games and dogsleds performing at the Buffalo Exposition.

1902 A whaling ship captain, Comer purchased Igloolik Qingailisaq’s shaman’s coat. A photo of a replica of the coat illustrates the publication accompanying the film Atanarjuat. D’Anglure described Qingailisaq’s coat as the “most superbly decorated shaman’s coat.” “It is a woman’s coat, a replica of the one worn by an ijiraq female spirit that he encountered while hunting caribou in the back country. She became one of his helping spirits and he wore the coat to honour her. Its appearance calls to mind certain aspects of his encounter with the female spirit.” This coat is now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York (2002:217).

1903 Northwest Mounted Police (RCMP) detachments set up in Canadian Arctic.

1903-6 Roald Amundsen completes Northwest Passage?

1904? The artist remembered the names of many of the people involved. Joe Talirunili (1899-1976) from Povungnituk made numerous carvings and drawings referring to this migration. One of the drawings (c.1960-70) illustrated and described in Blodgett’s exhibition catalogue 1983:208) entitled “The People Takatak, Kinuajuak and Kanavalik includes a text which reads, “The people Takatak, Kinuajuak and Kanavalik on land were wondering if the canoe was carrying white people or Indians. They were scared because they never expected a boat in July. They thought they were near death when they heard someone shouting to them from the boat. This is what they heard: ‘We’re Eskimo, we’re not Indians or white people. We were caught in the ice but this is the first time we have seen land in a long time.’ Woman shouting is Aula (Myers, Joe Talirunili: 50). “Blodgett 1983) described the incident third hand, “According to Johnny Pov in the memories of Joe (Myers p.6), several travelling Inuit families became stranded on an ice pan after it broke away from the coast. Blown out to sea as the ice pan began to break into smaller and smaller pieces, the travellers, using the wood from their sleds and skins they had with them, made a makeshift umiak to carry them over the water back to the mainland. Crowded into their boat, the people, the young Joe in his mother’s parka among them, finally reached safety. In later life, when carving teh episode from his childhood, Talirunili could remember the names of all the people on the boat.

1903-1914 “Under J.D. Moodie the first North West Mounted Police outposts was established at Cape Fullerton. While sovereignty was the primary reason for the establishment of the post, the police officers were responsible for the administration of whaling licenses, collecting customs, controlling the flow of liquor and maintaining order in the north. When the ‘Neptune’ sailed from Cape Fullerton in 1904, three policemen were left to man the outpost, which was maintained continuously for the next ten years.” http://www.chesterfieldinlet.net/chester_then.htm

1905 Atagutaaluk survived starvation in 1905 near Pond Inlet. The shaman Palluq and his wife Tagurnaaq and Atuat from Igloolik and Repulse Bay found her near Tariuju, closer to Mittimatalik. (See Rose Iqallijuq 1998) who also described another case of survival cannibalism by Kaagat who was found near Igluligaaijuk.) Later Atagutaaluk married the shaman chief Ittuksarjuat. They lived in a qarmaq, a sod or stone house (D’Anglure 2002:222). Ittuksarjuat died in. See also 1950 Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo 16:13. “Ujarak: My sister Atuat knows this person. She knows the story very well. My sister [Atuat] was the adopted daughter of Palluq and [his wife] Tagurnaaq. Tagurnaaq and her husband could not have a baby of their own, so they adopted Atuat. My sister Atuat, who is also called IttukuSuk, was very young at that time, but she was aware of everything that happened. The family, Palluq, Tagurnaaq and Atuat were on their way to Mittimatalik when they found Ataguttaaluk. The family brought Ataguttaaluk to where there were other people and stayed there for some time. Then they set out to the Kivalliq area and stayed there for quite a while (Iqallijuq, Rose and Johanasi Ujarak 1998).” The Igloolik shaman Atuat died in Arctic Bay in 1976. She was the daughter of Ava and Urulu. According to d’Anglure (2002) Atuat was the last Inuit to have extensive tatoos (2002:220). Atuat did a drawing in Arctic Bay in 1964 “depicting the last major winter-solstice celebration (Tivaajut) which she attended circa 1910 at Igloolik. At the end of the festivities, shamans paired everyone up into new couples for one night (d’Anglure 2002:219).” See illustration in the 2002 publication which accompanies the film Atanarjuat. According to d’Anglure in the early 1920s there were eighty shamans in the greater Igloolik area which included North Baffin to Repulse Bay region. This included fourteen women. By the 1940s all had converted to Christianity. Thirty were still alive in the 1970s. Today their names are alive through their children (d’Anglure 2002:209). [I taught one of the descendents Tabitha Palluq through CITP. Her reaction to the showing of the film starvation was very moving.] Knud Rasmussen photographed shamans in 1921-2 expedition including Urulu, Atuat’s mother, a woman shaman from the area of Igloolik/Repulse Bayand three shaman brothers from Igloolik/Repulse Bay Ivaluarjuak, Ava and Pilaskapsi. See d’Anglure (2002:211).

1905 Invention of plastic marks the end of the exploitation of the baleen whale by American and European whalers. The declining market for whale oil and baleen led to the aggressive development of the white fox fur trade by the HBC.

1905 D’Anglure (2002) described a photo of a flight of the shaman séance in 1905 among the Avilik people. The Avilik lived next to the Igloolik Inuit. “The shaman is tied from head to feet (as at the beginning of the legend of Atanarjuat) and gets ready to send his soul travelling (2002:212).” See also (Iqallijuq NAC 1998) “Iqallijuq: The first time he performed ilimmaqtuqtuq I did not hear why this was being done. The following year, I saw him ilimmaqtuqtuq again. We were living in Salliq. Aullannaaq and some other men had gone to Igluligaarjuk. They were overdue and we were starting to wonder if they were on their way back or if they had gotten lost. Makkik performed ilimmaqtuqtuq to find out how they were. He saw them from above. He told us the whole story after his retum. The group was ready to cross through at Aivilik to return to the island. No one was sick in the group and they were all alive and well, he said. The first time I saw this I was really too young to understand what was going on. I don’t recall where he had gone or what news the angakkuq had brought back.”

1905 Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick White of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police was named Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. He made decisions unilaterally. He never once called together the Territorial Council. (Parker 1996:26),

1906 According to Rose Iqallijuq an Inuk and his wife survived starvation through cannibalism but only confessed when confronted by a shaman. Kaagat, who is buried at Iglulik Point, lived for a long time. (Iqallijuq 1998).

1906 The Canadian Handicrafts Guild was founded. This national organisation had its headquarters in Montreal.

1907 – 1909Captain Comer wintered over at his whaling station at Cape Fullerton, close to Repulse Bay. He collected ivory carvings of Musk Ox, polar bears.

Comer’s whaling station was at Cape Fullerton, close to today’s Repulse Bay. This musk ox is very similar to several collected by A. P. Low when he wintered over at Fullerton Harbour during 1903–1904. Another version, again very similar, is at the American Museum of Natural History, also collected by Comer. It is noteworthy that they all have horns made out of genuine musk-ox horn.

1909 Admiral Robert Peary and Matthew … reach North Pole.

1909 Reveillon Freres, Paris established a fur trading post at Inukjuak. The HBC arrived in 1920. The HBC purchased the Reveillon Freres in 1930s.

1909 Anglican mission established at Lake Harbour.

1911 First permanent trading post in south Baffin was at Lake Harbour, in Keewatin it was at Chesterfield Inlet.

1912 Burland (1973:92) referred to a famous event which took place in 1912 about an overcrowded whale boat. Burland makes constant errors so she is unreliable as a source.

1912 The boundaries of the Northwest Territories were set at the boundaries in existence in 1992. (Parker 1996:26),

1912 The northern boundary of Manitoba was extended to the 60th parallel. (Parker 1996:26),

1912 Quebec was expanded to include Arctic Quebec. (Parker 1996:26),

1913 Cape Dorset’s trading post was established.

1913 -1918 Canadian Arctic Expedition: Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Diamond Jenness.

1913 Edward Beauclerk Maurice (1913-2003) was born September 10th or 16th? In Claredon, Somerset

1914 Charlie Ekomiak 1914-1960s?) was born. He was the father of Sarah Ekoomiak (b.1933), Annie (b.1935), Maggie (b.1937), Sam (b.1939), Emily (b.1941), William Ekomiak (b.1943) Charlie Ekomiak married Lucie Menarik when he was 18 years old c. 1932. After Lucie Menarik died in 1944 Charlie remarried. Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was a fiddler and he taught his sons Charlie and Thomas. Thomas bought the fiddle from Eaton’s catalogue for $15.,

1916 – 1926 HBC operated a trading post at Okpiktooyuk near present day Baker Lake.

1918 Oil discovered at Norman Wells (Parker 1996:26).

1919 W.W. Cory became Commissioner of the Northwest Territories (Parker 1996:26),

1920s early According to d’Anglure in the early 1920s there were eighty shamans in the greater Igloolik area which included North Baffin to Repulse Bay region. This included fourteen women. By the 1940s all had converted to Christianity. Thirty were still alive in the 1970s. Today their names are alive through their children (d’Anglure 2002:209).

1921 Federal government appointed a Territorial Council of six members. (Parker 1996:26),

1921 – 1924. Danish explorer, Rasmussen’s Fifth Thule Expedition was undertaken crossing the Canadian Arctic much of it in dogsled. For some remote groups of Inuit, like the Utkuhikhalingmiut, he represented the first white contact. Listen to CBC radio interview with Mame Jackson to hear the voice of Jessie Oonark describing this encounter when she was in her teens. Along the way Rasmussen photographed Urulu, a woman shaman from the area of Igloolik/Repulse Bay. He also photographed and worked with three shaman brothers from Igloolik/Repulse Bay Ivaluarjuak, Ava and Pilaskapsi. See d’Anglure (2002:211).

1921-4 Knud Rasmussen photographed Urulu, a woman shaman from the area of Igloolik/Repulse Bay. He also photographed and worked with three shaman brothers from Igloolik/Repulse Bay Ivaluarjuak, Ava and Pilaskapsi. See d’Anglure (2002:211).

1922 Robert Flaherty’s Nanook of the North (1922) was the first documentary film ever made. In it Nanook a respected Inuk hunter demonstrated techniques of the seal (nasiq) hunt while joking with the camera crew.

1923. Mariano Aupilardjuk was born. He grew up near Nattiligaarjuk, Committee Bay where there was lots of ‘old ice’ and therefore Qallupilluq (Ernerk 1996)] Nunavut’s commissioner, Peter Irniq, has a special respect for Aupilarduk, because their families lived together in an outpost camp near Repulse Bay when Irniq was a child (Rideout 2001a). Mariano Aupiliardjuk was honoured with an Aboriginal Achievement Award in 2001 for his contributions as a bridge between generations, Inuit governance, local residents, on how to use IQ in modern society. In local Rankin Inlet elementary and secondary schools, at NAC, across Canada, advises RCMP, facilitates community and pan-territorial healing, works with youth to help them acquire land skills.

1924 Anthropologist Diamond Jenness received tiny ivory artifacts from Cape Dorset area. With this archaeological evidence the existence of the Dorset culture (800 BC – ) was established. c.

1924. Amendment to Indian Act (14-15 Geo. V Chap. 47) bringing Eskimos under the responsibility of the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs.

1924. Government interested in buying totems. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (of England) requested the preservation of totem poles in British Columbia. In a response letter to Doyle, Chas Stewart of the Dept. of Indian Affairs wrote that “.the Government has been commissioned to take up the matter, perhaps to buy out the totem poles in the Skeena River.” File number: Public Archives Indian Affairs. (RG10, Volume 4086 file 507,787-2). http://www.haislatotem.org/chronology/chron_main.html

1926 – 1927 Anglican and Catholic Missions open in Baker Lake.

1926. Thirteen Inuit starved to death at an outpost camp in Admiralty Inlet (Tester 1993:21).

1929. Pitchblende was discovered at Port Radium on the Great Bear Lake. Gilbert Labine began working his mine in 1930. This was the first major mining activity in the Northwest Territories. It produced radium and then uranium. (Parker 1996:26).

1930s. Americans were self-consciously constructing their identity as separate from Europe (Leclerc 1992:36-8).

1930s. Reverend Nelson was the minister in the area before the minister came who taught Jimmie Fleming.

1930s-1960s. “The use of the term ‘colony’ may sound odd, but it originated with civil servants who entered public service in the 1930s and felt they were doing work similar to the pioneering on the prairies of the nineteenth century. The term disappeared when they retired in the 1960s. See Tester and Kulchyski, Tammarniit (cited in note 134), p. 186. RCAP” ” Tester and Kulchyski, Tammarniit (cited in note 134), p. 111. The authors also caution that the term experiment must be seen in the context of the administrative culture of the day. The civil servants involved in northern administration considered that they were opening up the North in a manner parallel to what had happened on the Prairies following Confederation— (p. 119). Experiment, at least in this context, had noble rather than sinister connotations.” RCAP.

1930s Poor hunting years in the North led to deprivation among the Inuit. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11). Period of transition between the whaling period and the advent of trading posts.

1930 Bears teeth used as counters.

1930? Maurice was inspired to join the Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson’s Bay Company when the Archbishop of the Arctic visited his school.

1930 On April 7 Edward Beauclerk Maurice, a sixteen and a half year old teenager went to Pulteney House, on Pulteney Road, a large, elegant Victorian house set in its own picturesque south facing gardens, overlooking Bath Abbey, Bath in Somerset county. He was there to sign a contract with the Governor and Company of the Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson’s Bay Company. George Binney was the representative of the Company. The signing of the contract was witnessed by Laura Clifford and Mr. Belmont.

1930 Edward Beauclerk Maurice arrived in Montreal on his way to the Arctic. England Pangnirtung.

1900-1930 “Faced with issues of Arctic sovereignty, the Canadian state moved, often reluctantly, to address the health and welfare concerns of Inuit. Caught between a fear of creating dependency and being accused of neglecting its responsibilities, the Canadian government’s response during the period 1900 to 1930 was confused and inconsistent in its attempts to reconcile commercial interests —particularly those of the Hudson’s Bay Company —with concerns for sovereignty and Inuit welfare. Inuit voice —and observations of that voice —highlighted the necessity for the state’s involvement and emphasized the role and impact of commercial ventures such as the HBC on public health. The “voice of presence” —an Inuit contribution to public health policy in Canada —should not go unrecognized (Tester and McNicoll, Paule 2008-11).”

1930 Canadian Handicrafts Guild organized an exhibition of Eskimo Arts and Crafts at the McCord Museum in Montreal. The exhibition attracted the attention of the New York Times. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11)

1931. The “first Catholic mission was established by Father E. Bazin at Avvajja, three kilometres north of Igloolik, in a qarmaq. The great shaman Ituksarjuat and his wife Ataguttaaluk, the last great isumataq (traditional leaders) of Igloolik (Atanarjuat 2002:7).”

1931. Hugh Rowatt was appointed as Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. There were budget cuts due to the Depression. (Parker 1996:28).

1931. Ittuksarjuat converted to Catholicism. He asked to be buried alone on a small island near Igloolik. Ittuksarjuat requested that Inuit “abandon the winter camp of Avvajjaq where bad spirits caused his illness (D’Anglure Atanarjuat 2002:226).”

1932. Ste Therese hospital was built in Chesterfield Inlet in 1932. Source Alexina Kublu Inuit Studies, Nunavut Arctic College.

1933. Sarah Ekoomiak was born in Richmond Gulf on the coast, not far from Kuujjuarapik, Hudson’s Bay. She was the oldest of six children who were born of Charlie Ekomiak and Lucy Menark in the camp of paternal grandfather Jimmie Ekomiak (Fleming) and his wife Annie (name?). Annie was small. The name was supposed to be umiak. Jimmie Ekoomiak Fleming was calling out Umiak! Umiak! So they gave him the name Umiak. Jimmie Ekoomiak died and was buried in Moose Factory cemetery. He was there in 1950s. William Menarick (Willie’s grandfather from his mother’s side). Menarick means smooth. William Menarick is the father of Simon, Caroline (b. strong woman, hunter who walked with a limp, liked Sarah, didn’t want her to get married).

1933-44. In Sarah Ekoomiak’s early childhood years before her mother’s premature death in 1944, her family lived on the land. Her grandfather Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was camp leader. Grandfather Ekomiak was very skilled. He used to make cord from seal skin with a special knife with a curved blade. He made this cord for the dogsleds. Her father Charlie Ekomiak knew how to do this too. Her grandfather knew how to make fish nets. They fished using nets from canoes in rivers, lakes and James Bay all year round. It was a long net with buoys, a piece of a floating wood. They caught white fish and trout and cod, small fish called Kanayuk (sculpin); [need picture of different kinds of fish] used to fish in spring when ice cracks would open. They fished with a jig with a little handle, stick. Caught cod by jigging. Sarah (b.1933), Annie (b.1935), Maggie (b.1937), Sam (b.1939), Emily (b.1941), William (b.1943) were there when Sarah’s mother was alive until 1944. They moved to Kuujjuarapik. In 1941 or 1942 when Sarah was 8 or 9 they left Kuujjuarapik. They moved outside Kuujjuarapik. They lived in semi-tents with trees branches with moss between and a canvas on top. Spruce branches on the floor. Her mother would change the branches six children and mom and dad; Jimmie Ekoomiak Fleming and with his wife had their own tent. Grandmother Fleming was very strict. We lived in camps a lot. Grandmother Fleming kept all her sewing tools wrapped in a loon skin. Eight-year old Sarah and her grand Aunt Dinah wanted to look at the sewing tools but they knew they weren’t supposed to. Her father Charlie Ekoomiak was a good carver and he carved a doll for Sarah. He used to go away for two weeks at a time. All the men would go. The six children would stay behind with her mother. The children didn’t eat as well when the men were gone. Sometimes her mother would catch a rabbit. Sometimes she would fish. Once when Sarah’s mother was going fishing, she told Sarah to take care of Sammie who was only an infant c. 1940. Sarah was only seven or eight years old. Thsi was before Willie was born. They only had a ptarmigan a little meat. Sarah was told to chew the food before giving it to Sammie. Instead she swallowed it. Sarah felt so bad about this incident that she remembered it in 2004. She told me this story several times. Most of the time she would laugh about it but once their were tears in her eyes. Grandmother Rosie still had a seal oil kudlik to warm her teapot. She used cloth as a wick. She hung her kettle above the kudlik. In the morning it would be so cold and her father would make a fire in the morning. Charlie Ekomiak did carvings and he made harnesses for dogs. He decorated the harnesses with wool. Sarah would make little boots for dogs using a square with a hole and sew them for the dogs’ feet to protect the dogs’ feet in the rough ice. I had experienced that vicarious museum-effect while Sarah Ekomiak told stories of her childhood on the land near Chisasibi, Nunavik in the 1930s. Sarah’s family was semi-nomadic. As they moved from hunting camp to fishing camp, they would sometimes come upon ancient abandoned sites where ancient objects spoke of the people who had passed through here before. They found bones, weapons, the tops of tobacco tin cans recycled for oil lamps and even a narwhal tusk& This was the archives, the museum. When Peter Outridge came to present slides at our home one evening on his Arctic travels, he brought items that were collected from abandoned camps. This sparked Sarah’s memories. Sarah’s mother, Lucie Menarik could speak Cree. The Cree and Charlie Ekomiak camp got along well like a big family. The first time she went to Chisasibi Indians still lived in tents. She remembers them. Some are still living. Claude x 50-year-old lived in Chisasibi and he remembered the Ekomiaks. They shared flour and food with each other. Indians used to have toboggan with all their hunting things. Her father had komatik. They shared whatever they knew. Her aunt married an Indian. She died. They were happy together. They had seven children who are part Inuk and part Cree but now they don’t speak Inuktitut. They were the only Inuit family in Chisasibi. They brought us there to go to school. They got along well with the Cree. They spoke Inuktitut at home and Cree outside. Now in her old community they speak three languages, English too. Sarah’s grandmother taught her how to make good boots because she told her she would need to know how to sew them.

1934. Gold was discovered in Yellowknife. In 1938 the Con mine began production. Two local community supporters were Ingraham, a bootlegger and Giegerich, manager of Consolidated Mining and Smetling Company, now called Cominco. (Parker 1996:28) The Alaska Highway was pushed through BC and the Yukon. The Canol Pipeline was constructed from Norman Wells to Whitehorse through the Mackenzie mountains to carry oil. It was later abandoned. (Parker 1996:29).

1935. In the mid-1930s Atagutaaluk and her husband the shaman chief Ittuksarjuat lived in a qarmaq, a sod or stone house (D’Anglure 2002:222) in Igloolik which was illustrated by her daughter Suzanne Niviarsiat for the publication accompanying the film Atanarjuat (2002:213). Atagutaaluk survived the famine of 1905. A shaman Palluq from Igloolik and Repulse Bay found her. Ittuksarjuat died in. See also 1950 Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo 16:13.

1935-6. Inuit lands and peoples were under the authority of the Department of the Interior, Annual Report 1935-36, p. 36.

1936. The “Department of Indian Affairs was made a branch of the Department of Mines and Resources (1 Ed. VIII Chap. 33). The Indian Affairs Branch was placed under Dr. H.W. McGill as director. The branch included the following components: Field Administration (four inspectors, one Indian Commissioner and one hundred and fifteen agents); Medical Welfare and Training Service (responsible for schools, employment and agricultural projects); Reserves and Trust Service (responsible for land matters and timber disposal); Records Service (responsible for current files and historical material).” http://collections.ic.gc.ca/treaties/text/rec_e_tx.htm

1936. Dr. Charles Camsell was appointed Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. His father was a factor of the Hudson’s Bay Company (Parker 1996:28).

1936. The Hudson’s Bay Company post was established at Igloolik.

1936. Responsibility for Indian Affairs passed to the Minister of Mines and Resources. The position of Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs which was part of the Canadian cabinet from 1867 until 1936, was abolished.

1936. “There was a Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs in the Canadian cabinet from 1867 until 1936 when the Minister of Mines and Resources became responsible for native affairs. In 1950 the Indian Affairs branch was transferred to the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, who had responsibility for “registered Indians” until the creation of the position of Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in 1966. Before 1966 the Northern Development portions of the portfolio were the responsibility of the Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources.”

1937. The Catholic mission was built on Igloolik Island at Ikpiarjuk near the town of Igloolik.

1938. These were good years of living on the land for Sarah Ekoomiak and her family. She was only five years old. She can remember being tucked into the nose of her father’s kayak and she could see jellyfish, rocks, and fish. She cherishes this memory.

1938 Roman Catholic mission established at Cape Dorset.

1939 The Indian committee of the Canadian Handicrafts Guild was changed to Indian and Eskimo Committee to include the encouragement of Inuit work. Committee members included Alice Whitehall, Dr. Diamond Jenness. The Inuit collection at that time included miniature baskets, a kerosene lamp, fine fur work, walrus tusk ivories including an altar frontal made by the women of Pangnirtung.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11)

1939 The Supreme Court of Canada ruled the Inuit were entitled to the same health, education and social services as the Indians were granted in the 1876 Indian Act. (Hessel 1998:190)

1939 The Canadian Handicrafts Guild exhibited Bishop Fleming’s Inuit art collection.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11)

1939. Inuit relocations in the Arctic began in 1939 (Tester and Kulchyski 1994).

1939? Just before she died Sarah Ekoomiak’s paternal grandmother, Rosie (1860s- c.1937) lacked the strength and could no longer work as hard as she wanted. She couldn’t help others so she made a promise that her grandchildren would help others. Greatgrandmother Rosie Fleming was very spiritual. She became agitated because she could not tell her people about God so when she died a cigar-shaped form appeared in the sky writing letters of smoke in the heavens. The Hudson Bay company man could read it but none of the Inuit could. Sarah claims that she saw this so it must have been in the 1930s? when she died? The HBC man changed his religion because it was the only improvement he could think of. He changed from Catholic to Anglican. This happened in Kuujuarapik (Great Whale River).

1939 The Canadian Handicrafts Guild exhibited Bishop Fleming’s Inuit art collection (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11).

1940. Lascaux caves were discovered. Carbon dating provided proof that the human ancestry could be traced much farther back in time than previously understood (Leclerc 1992:36-9).

1940 It was noted in the minutes of the meeting of the Canadian Handicrafts Guild that the art of basketry was practiced in a section of the Ungava region. Basket making had been introduced there c. 1740 by the Moravian missionaries. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12)

1940s RCMP conducted census of Inuit populations. They assigned the infamous identification numbering system using discs. These disc numbers were dropped during the “Operation Surname” in the 1960s. Canadian government assumed responsibility for Inuit welfare in the late 1940s. (Hessel 1998:8) 1940s. According to Bernard Saladin d’Anglure (2002 Atanarjuat: 225) shamanism was eradicated in the Arctic. An era of intense rivalry between Anglicans and Catholics began ending only in 1962-5 with the Second Vatican Council. Catholic missionaries encouraged Mark Tungilik in Repulse Bay to carve miniature ivories. There was widespread awareness of the threat of atomic bomb in the south. Certitudes in the West were shattered and philosophy was shaken (Leclerc 1992:36-8).

1940s According to Bernard Saladin d’Anglure (2002 Atanarjuat: 225) shamanism was eradicated in the Arctic. An era of intense rivalry between Anglicans and Catholics began ending only in 1962-5 with the Second Vatican Council.,

1940s Catholic missionaries encouraged Mark Tungilik in Repulse Bay to carve miniature ivories.,

1940s There was widespread awareness of the threat of atomic bomb. Certitudes were shattered. Philosophy was shaken (Leclerc 1992:36-8).

1940 -2 RCMP schooner St. Roch completed Northwest Passage from west to east?

1940 -2 Peter Pitseolak (1902 – 1973) experimented with watercolours and collage dressing a magazine image of Clark Gable with Inuit fur clothing. He would go on to become a skilled photographer. (Hessel 1998:25)

1940 – 45 Guild activities were cut back during WWII. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12)

1941.S. Arneil, Investigation Report on Indian Reserves and Indian Administration, Province of Nova Scotia (Ottawa: Department of Mines and Resources, Indian Affairs Branch, August 1941). RCAP.

1942 Americans constructed the runway at Frobisher Bay (Iqaluit) leading to the employment of a number of Inuit on the US base until the Americans left in 1964. TY Colin for drawing my attention to this omission.

1943. E9-630 Willie Ekomiak was born in Cape Jones on the coast across from Long Island. His mother dropped Willie when he was a baby and he was hurt. His wrist was bleeding very badly and she cried very hard. His mother Lucie Menarik Ekomiak died shortly after that. They were living in camp somewhere out in Kuujjuarapik. Before her mother died Sarah carried Willie on her back. Their mother died when Sarah was still in school. Sarah was the oldest girl. William was born when the family was moving south from Great Whale River to Fort George because Jimmy Ekomiak Fleming wanted his children to go to school. There were no schools farther north. William, his brother Samuel, Sarah, Maggie, Jeannie all went to school in Fort George. Other Inuit families included the Menarick’s, Isaac Fleming’s children. Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was the camp leader. They lived by the river.

1944. Lucie Menarik Ekomiak, Sarah Ekoomiak and Willie Ekomiak’s mother died. She had bad migraines perhaps from high blood pressure. When she died he was adopted by his Aunt Martha and Uncle Thomas Ekoomiak. There were three or four camps together. Aunt Martha wore a shawl like many women of the time. Their sister Emilie (b.1941) was also adopted out but she was not well cared for so Charlie Ekomiak got her back from Great Whale River Kuujjuarapik. She became William’s favourite playmate. Great Whale River, Kuujjuarapik (by the Inuit) or Whapmagoostui (by the Cree).

1945. “Indian Health Services was transferred from the Department of Mines and Resources to the Department of National Health and Welfare (P.C. 1945-6495). At this time Eskimo Health Services was also transferred from the responsibility of the Northwest Territories Division of Lands, Parks, and Forests Branch. R.A. Hoey was appointed director of Indian Affairs Branch.” http://collections.ic.gc.ca/treaties/text/rec_e_tx.htm

1945-7. Jimmy Ekomiak Fleming moved south so that the children could attend school in Fort George. Sarah Ekoomiak lived in Chisasibi. Sarah Ekoomiak attended school in Fort George. Her grandfather decided that some of the children would attend Anglican school while the others attended the Catholic school. She tried to play with her uncle Elijah Menarik, her mother Lucie’s youngest brother, but it was hard to communicate because he spoke only Cree. They had made up a game using pebbles. Ask her about this. Elijah Menarik (1931-1991) was the youngest of ten children. The others were Lucie (Sarah Ekoomiak’s mother), Moses, Neeala, Johnny, Maggie, Marianne and Elijah. Marianne is still alive but she has developed alzheimers disease. His sister Lucie was Sarah Ekoomiak’s mother. Elijah was brought up with a Cree family with ten children and he could not speak Inuktitut until he was in his late teens. A white teacher Mrs. Heinz, had him sent to Inukjuak when he was 18 or 19 years old so he could learn Inuktitut! Elijah was active in the Co-ops in Iqaluit. He also worked in Inuvik for awhile. Sarah has his story and photo. Elijah’s success led to his alcoholism as every success was celebrated with alcohol. When he was young he worked as an orderly in Moose Factory hospital. His daughter Jeannie, Sarah’s first cousin lives in Africa with her millionaire French husband, originally from Montreal, who made a fortune in aircraft.

1945-61. Oblate missionary Father Franz van de Velde was the only white person in the remote community of Pelly Bay. He encouraged the production and marketing of ivory miniatures and scenes. He sold them through the mail (Hessel 1998:109).

1945 Maurice, at 32 years of age moved to New Zealand, became a bookseller in an English village and never traveled again.

1946 The International Whaling Commission (IWC) began regulating whaling.

1946 Canadian Army’s Arctic military exercise “Operation Muskox” at Baker Lake. Major Cleghorn noted the high quality of carvings in the Keewatin area and suggested this potential developed.

1946. American capitalists began to invest in Canadian companies. Prior to WWII British investors were the principal investors in Canadian companies (Leclerc 1992:36-8).

1946. Barnett Newman (1946) wrote the opening paragraph ‘Northwest Coast Indian Painting’ in an exhibition catalogue for the Betty Parsons Gallery in New York, in which he argued that, “It is becoming more and more apparent that to understand modern art, one must have an appreciation of primitive arts, for just as modern art stands as an island of revolt in the stream of Western European aesthetics, the many primitive art traditions stand apart as authentic accomplishments that flourished without benefit of European history (Cited in Houle 1982:3).” 1946. La philosophie francaise souffrait d’une mise en question. La guerre et l’occupation avait mis fin a l’anti-intellectualisme bergsonien (compromis par une obscrue parante avec l’irrationalisme allemand). En 1946 des hegelians et les existentialists commence a monter.1946 La philosophie francaise professionelle commence a naitre, souverain, temoin et juge exterieur a la vie, distingue par leur distance (la vie spirituelle). (Lefebvre 1958:12).

1946 La philosophie francaise souffrait d’une mise en question. La guerre et l’occupation avait mis fin a l’anti-intellectualisme bergsonien (compromis par une obscrue parante avec l’irrationalisme allemand). En 1946 des hegelians et les existentialists commence a monter.1946 La philosophie francaise professionelle commence a naitre, souverain, temoin et juge exterieur a la vie, distingue par leur distance (la vie spirituelle). (Lefebvre 1958:12),

1947 Dr. Hugh Keenleyside was appointed Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. Under his leadership education, social service and health programs were implemented. (Parker 1996:30),

1947 In connection with Operation Muskox, a weather station was established in Baker Lake.

1947 M.V. Nascopie sinks off Cape Dorset.

1947 The Guild was asked to encourage Inuit in the Ungava region to continue carving as a much needed source of additional income. Hunting was poor, the price of fur was down and the Inuit had proven their gift for carving. The Guild emphasized the need to maintain the artist’s individuality and independence. A one-page letter was sent to northern communities asking them to carve ivory models, brooches, pendants… (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12)

1947 James Houston from Grandmère visited Port Harrison.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12)

1947. Dr. Hugh Keenleyside was appointed Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. Under his leadership education, social service and health programs were implemented. (Parker 1996:30).

1947. Jock McNiven, manager of Negus mine in Yellowknife, was appointed to the Council of the Northwest Territories. (Parker 1996:30).

1947. Three years after the death of his first wife Lucie, Charlie Ekomiak married Maggie Tootoo (tuktu). William was in the hospital when he was three. He was a chubby baby.

1947. “The Welfare and Training Division was split into a Welfare Division (responsible for welfare, family allowances, Veterans’ Land Act administration, and handicrafts) and an Education Division.” http://collections.ic.gc.ca/treaties/text/rec_e_tx.htm

1947. Henri-Georges Clouzot’s classical film Quai des Orfevres was shown portraying the dance halls and historic crime corridors of 1940s Paris. Various furs — fox furs, sunburst, coats, collars, trim, hats — worn by Jenny Lamour, the ambitious singer with stars in her eyes, in the chilly interiors of poorly heated Parisian buildings, were important ‘actors’ in this classical film.

1947. The western part of the Mackenzie delta area was added to the Yukon Territories. (Parker 1996:30).

1948. Communists took over Czecheslovakia. There was a threat of an iron curtain dividing Europe along a north-south axis. The Cold War began with democratic and communist countries in tension each holding the other in atomic terror (Leclerc 1992:36).

1948. Polio struck the Keewatin region. By 1949 there was a serious epidemic in Chesterfield Inlet. Quarantine was put into affect which included the surrounding regions. Mark Kalluak, wrote about his childhood experience with polio in a 1997 article for Inuktitut magazine.

1948-1955, Garry Lake Caribou Inuit Hanningajurmiut on Garry Lake/Back River traded at Kitikmeot fur trader Stephen Angulalik’s outpost located at Atanikittuq (“little connection”) at Sherman Inlet.

1948-52. These were the years William Ekomiak (b.1943) remembers as the hungry years. Sarah was between 15 to 19 years old. Willie was between 5 to nine years old.

1949 – 1953 Early years of contemporary period of Inuit art.

1949 The Guild sponsored James Houston’s trip to Povungnitok region in order for him to purchase Inuit arts and crafts.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12)

1949 Canadian Handicraft Guild of Montreal sale of Inuit art on Peel Street. Guild members C. J. G. Molson (Quebec branch)and Alice Whitehall encouraged James Houston to return north to buy more carvings. This marked the beginning of what art historians call the “contemporary period of Inuit art” (Wenzel 1985:81) The Canadian Handicraft Guild sponsored the James Houston project promoting Inuit carvings in the south. From this time onwards public galleries began small collections of Inuit art (Jessup 1992:xiv)? Confirm?

1949. “Indian Affairs Branch transferred to the Department of Citizenship and Immigration (13 Geo. VI Chap. 16). The administrative structure of the Branch remained virtually unchanged. A Construction and Engineering Service, however, was created. 1948 – Maj. D.M. MacKay appointed director of Indian Affairs Branch.” http://collections.ic.gc.ca/treaties/text/rec_e_tx.htm

1949. Striking of the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences popularly known as the Massey Commission after its Chair, Vincent Massey.

1949-50. The NWT Ennadai Lake Signal Detachment of Operation Muskox? arranged an airlift of the Kazan River Inuit community. The group was in danger of starvation after migrant caribou herds by-passed the area. The Inuit returned the next year and were frequent recipients of the detachment’s medical aid until the detachment closed three years later. In that year there was widespread starvation. Comment: Was there a relationship between the disappearing caribou herds and Operation Muskox?

1949 Molson, C. J. G., Alice Whitehall, et al. 1949. The Guild sponsored James Houston’s trip to Povungnitok region in order for him to purchase Inuit arts and crafts (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12). Canadian Handicraft Guild of Montreal sale of Inuit art on Peel Street. Guild members C. J. G. Molson (Quebec branch) and Alice Whitehall encouraged James Houston to return north to buy more carvings. The Guild held a sale of Inuit art on Peel Street, Montreal marking the beginning of the contemporary period of Inuit art. (Wenzel 1985:81) (1949-53). Montreal, Canadian Handicraft Guild. The Guild sponsored James Houston’s trip to Povungnitok region in order for him to purchase Inuit arts and crafts.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12) Canadian Handicraft Guild of Montreal sale of Inuit art on Peel Street. Guild members C. J. G. Molson (Quebec branch) and Alice Whitehall encouraged James Houston to return north to buy more carvings. The Guild held a sale of Inuit art on Peel Street, Montreal marking the beginning of the contemporary period of Inuit art. (Wenzel 1985:81) (1949-53)

1940s – 50s Polio in the North.

1949 Father Joseph Buliard, a Roman Catholic missionary established a post on an island in Garry Lake. Father Joseph Buliard disappeared in 1956. The cabin still stands in 2009.

1950. Cape Dorset gets a one-room school.

1950. Federal day school opened in Igloolik. Anglican mission established in Igloolik.

1950. From 1850 to 1950 concepts such as Wilderness and North informed Canadian visual and literary arts. See Heath (1983:46).

1950. Heinrich’s (1950) article entitled “Some Present-Day Acculturative Innovations in a Nonliterate Society” published in the American Anthropologist focused on his study of the emergence of the ivory carving as a Diomede Eskimo of Alaska cultural industry. The Inuit innovated and expanded on cultural products for the tourist market.

1950. Hugh Young, a strong army man, was named Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. In 1925 he had established Aklavik as an army signals station (Parker 1996:30).

1950. “In 1950 the Indian Affairs branch was transferred to the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, who had responsibility for “registered Indians” until the creation of the position of Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in 1966. Before 1966 the Northern Development portions of the portfolio were the responsibility of the Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources.” wikipedia.org.

1950. Inuit first vote in a Canadian election (Alia).

1950. A nursing station was built at Baker Lake.

1950. The “offices of Minister of Mines and Resources and Minister of Reconstruction and Supply were abolished by Statute and the offices of the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Minister of Mines and Technical Surveys and Minister of Resources and Development created and proclaimed in force on 18 Jan. 1950.” wikipedia.

1950. Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo. 16:13.

1950. There were only five galleries advertised in the Montreal Star. By 1972 there were already forty-five. Harold Town graduated from the Ontario College of Art in 1944 was not able to see a single non-figurative painting until 1953. See Withrow (1972:8). Town noted that at that time their were few art teachers because of the war. Town grew up in a rough working-class WASP neighbourhood in Toronto. He worked as commercial illustrator to support his own studio work in the 1940s. His reputation grew when he exhibited with the Painters Eleven in 1952. His work was highly cotés which allowed him to have a comfortable home in Toronto with his family.

1950 A nursing station was built at Baker Lake.

1950s Puvirnituq developed around a HBC post.

1951 Anglican church is built in Cape Dorset.

1951 James Houston visited Pangnirtung and showed crafts and carvings. He noted that the area did not have really good carving stone. But the women could create art with a needle by sewing on their clothing.

1952 Doug Wilkinson produced Land of the Long Day about Joseph Idlout from Pond Inlet, a respected hunter and camp leader.The 1967 two dollar bill depicted a still from the film with Idlout.

1950s Slump in fox fur trade.

1950s In Rankin Inlet some Inuit employed by nickel mine.

1951A Federal Day School was built and opened in Chesterfield Inlet where Inuit often gathered to seek employment or to trade goods. “Until the 1950’s the community was a major centre North of Churchill, MB. It was the Hudson’s Bay Company’s main supply centre for other posts in the area. It was also the site of the largest RCMP barracks and the largest Roman Catholic mission in the eastern arctic, as well as medical and education centre.” http://www.chesterfieldinlet.net/chester_then.htm

1952 Canadian government promotes Inuit art. Akeeaktashuk carvings of Hunter, Bear…

1952 Salluit began its art project and by 1955 70% of the adult population were carving (1998 Hessel).

1953 Pangnirtung used to be largest settlement in the eastern or central Arctic. Famous old center for Scottish whalers. Small hospital. C. D. Howe anchored there. Pannirtung Fjord is particularly beautiful. Mountains are blue, snow capped.

1953 Houston visited Pangnirtung again and saw some enormous Arctic bowheads (Houston, James. 1996:151).

1955 Alma and James Houston settle in Cape Dorset and are active in encouraging carving and handicrafts.

1955 DEW Line was built.

1955 Turquetil Hall residence was opened in 1955 in Chesterfield Inlet. It was named after Father Turquetil who arrived in Chesterfield Inlet on the Hudson’s Bay Company supply ship, the Nascopie in 1912. The residence was closed in 1969 and demolished in 1984. Source Alexina Kublu Inuit Studies, Nunavut Arctic College and David Paul King. 2000. “The History of the Federal Residential Schools for the Inuit Located in Chesterfield Inlet, Yellowknife, Inuvik and Churchill, 1955-1970.” Father Turquetil was responsible for the expansion of the Anglican Church in the Keewatin area: Eskimo Point (1924), Coral Harbour (1926), Baker Lake (1927), Igloolik (1929), and Pond Inlet (1929).

1956-12-31 At a New Year Eve drunken party at Norman Evalik’s home in, prosperous Ahiarmiut trader Angulalik stabbed Otoetok, who had been habitually stealing trade goods from Angulalik’s store. Otoetok died several days later. “When Angulalik learned of Otoetok’s death he dictated a letter to Norman Evalik and sent one copy to the police and one to the HBC manager Bill Heslop. In the ensuing trial at Cambridge Bay conducted by Judge Sissons, Angulalik was acquitted of the charge of murder. Angulalik was born into an Ahiarmiut family around 1898 in the vicinity of the Ellice River (Kuunnuaq) on the Queen Maud Gulf. His father was Oakoak and mother Okalitaaknahik. On his father’s side his grandfather was Illiviujaq and grandmother Koihok. Angulalik first appears in documentary sources in 1923 when he was recorded to be living in Killingujaq (Kent Peninsula) with his wives Koloahok and Kuptana, a daughter Kaitok (Rowena), and an adopted son Oakoak (George). Angulalik later adopted Nakoyak (Jimmy) from Topilikon and Kaitak.” mother hubbard parka, Jessie Oonark, http://www.kitikmeotheritage.ca/Angulalk/anglinuk/anglinuk.htm

1957 – 58 Widespread starvation in the Keewatin area. Back River camps move into Baker Lake.

1957 A federal dayschool opened at Baker Lake. Pre-fabricated subsidized government housing constructed from the mid-1950s. Northern Services Officer Doug Wilkinson encouraged the development of the arts and crafts industry in Baker Lake.

1958 James Houston studies printmaking in Japan.

1958 The Povungnitok Sculptors’ Society formed in 1958 and became the Povungnituk’s Co-operative in 1960 (Myers, M. ).

1958 Jessie Oonark’s family were among those who suffering from famine in 1958 as the annual caribou migration bypassed their territorial hunting grounds. 58 Hanningajuq (Garry Lake), on Back River) inhabitants died. The federal government intervened by relocating the 31 survivors to Baker Lake. Most Hanningajurmiut never returned to Garry Lake on a permanent basis but William Noah, Community Liaison Officer for Areva Resources Canada in Nunavut and son of Jessie Oonark, toured around Garry Lake on August 11, 2009 . The Garry Lake Inuktitut dialect is related to Utkuhiksalik, the dialect of the Utkusiksalinmiut. (Caribou Inuit).

1958 Until 1958, Ennadai Lake was home to Ihalmiut, a Copper Inuit people. Kikkik’s story: “The story is about Karetak’s mother, Kikkik, and her harrowing experience at Henik Lake in the winter of 1958. The federal government had relocated Kikkik’s family and the other Ihalmiut from Ennadai Lake to Henik Lake. But the caribou were scarce there and starvation soon set in.
Ootek, a man who was delusional from hunger, shot and killed Kikkik’s husband, Hallauk. Ootek then came after Kikkik and her children. The scared mother stabbed him to death to protect her family. She then set out on a trek across the Barrens to seek help — carrying one-and-a-half-year-old Elisapee on her back, two more daughters and a son in tow behind her. They hadn’t eaten for days and Kikkik struggled to carry all the children. She knew they wouldn’t all survive, so she dug a hole in the snow and left two girls behind. Elisapee, riding in her mother’s amauti, continued on the trek. An RCMP plane spotted them, brought them to safety and found the abandoned girls. Only one had survived. Kikkik then found herself charged with the murder of Ootek and causing the death of one of her daughters. The film recreates the murder, the trek and the trial in 1958 — in which Kikkik was found not guilty.” http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut020621/news/features/20621_1.html

1959 West Baffin Cooperative first print collection printed in 1959 was shown at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in 1960.

1960s Jorgen Meldgaard excavated Palaeo-Eskimo occupations at Igloolik. 1961 Bernard Saladin d’Anglure was shown petroglyphs Dorset sites of the coast of Nunavik.

1961 West Baffin Eskimo Co-operative is incorporated.

1963 Rankin Inlet ceramics project introduced.

1960s The Winnipeg Art Gallery and the Canadian Museum of Civilization (the National Museum of Man) started to collect, research and exhibit Inuit art.

1964 The first ‘matchbox” houses are brought to Cape Dorset. Cape Dorset gets its first telephones.

1969 The S.S.Manhattan, an American icebreaker-tanker made the $40 million northwest passage through Canadian Arctic waters .

1970 Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC) a national political association, formed by Inuit students living in the south. Inuit politics was born. Before the 1970s the co-op was the only organized voice Inuit had. (Myers 1980:139)

1970 Baker Lake’s first print collection published. This was the year after the arrival of southern artists Sheila and Jack Butler. Sanavik Co-operative is incorporated in 1971.

1971 “Arctic Quebec cooperatives combined with the community councils to begin negotiating a form of regional government within the province of Quebec (Myers 1980:143).”

1971 Inuit sculpture showcased in international exhibition, Sculpture/Inuit: Masterworks of the Canadian Arctic(Canadian Eskimo Arts Council). 1970s Igloolik artists begin to produce art in quantities in 1970s.

1973 – 1988 Pangnirtung printmaking co-op is established as a territorial government sponsored project.

1976 The annual Cape Dorset print collection included Pudlo Pudlat’s controversial print entitled Airplane.

1976 “Before 1976 the anti-sealing campaign centered on the need for sound conservation and humane killing practices. After 1976, because of a strong regulatory regime enacted by the Canadian government on species conservation, the issues shifted to a ‘morality of any use of seals’ (Wenzel 1991:47).”

1977 Inuit prints showcased in international exhibition, The Inuit Print/L’estampe Inuit(National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada).

1977 Inuit Circumpolar Conference adopted Inuit as the designation for all Eskimos, regardless of local usages. (1996) Arctic Perspectives.

1977 Baker Lake print shop, its drawing archives and 1977 print collection are destroyed by fire.

1980 “Inuit arts and crafts generated five million dollars in personal income for Inuit (Myers 1980:141).”

1980 The Macdonald Stewart Art Centre acquired over 400 drawings dating from the 1960s to the 1990s by Canadian Inuit artists.

1980s The National Gallery of Canada and the Art Gallery of Ontario begin to collect, research and exhibit Inuit art.

1980s In the 1980s, postcards were distributed to 12 million United States and United Kingdom households depicting the infamous Canadian Atlantic fisher swinging a bat at a baby seal and eliciting an overwhelming emotional response. Major legislative bodies relented to public pressure with a staggering impact on wildlife management. The collapse of the sealskin market marked a victory for protesters who had waged the most effective, international mass media campaign ever undertaken (Ejesiak, Flynn-Burhoe 2005).”

1981 In 1981 ringed seal natisiq provided nearly 2/3 of the edible biomass in Clyde River. In 1982-3 seal was barely half this total (Wenzel 1991:125)

1982 The members of the European Economic Community agreed to a voluntary ban on the importation of seal products and have recently agreed to indefinitely extend this embargo (Wenzel 1985).”

1983 Economy of the North: Until 1983 cash came from seal skins.

1985 “Inuk lawyer Paul Okalik’s arguments for recognition of the seal as mainstay of the Inuit fell on deaf ears in 1985. Today, he speaks as the premier of Nunavut, Canada’s newest territory, a vast region of the central and eastern Arctic covering over a million square miles. Nunavut, which means ”our land,” is the result of decades of deliberations, one of four Canadian Arctic regions involved in self-government negotiations (Ejesiak, Flynn-Burhoe 2005).”

1985 George W. Wenzel wrote an article entitled “Marooned in a Blizzard of Contradictions: Inuit and the Anti-Sealing Movement” in the journal Etudes Inuit Studies in which he argued that “For the past thirty years opponents of commercial sealing, as practiced in Canada have attempted through public, media, and governmental pressures to bring an end to the hunt.” “The 1985 Council of the European Economic Community extended the 1983 ban on imports of all products of the commercial sealhunt. This closed the most important fur fashion market to sealskins and devastated the Canadian sealskin market. It was an impressive victory for animal rights activists. “To Inuit, however, who had gone virtually unnoticed in the general furor of lobbying in the preceding days, it represented not simply the loss of a market but the real problem of maintaining the fabric of their culture in the face of southern domination.” At this time, in 1985, the Royal Commission on Seals and the Sealing Industry was in the midst of hearings on the sealhunt. Canadians hoped that this ‘hard scientific data’ would convince the EEC of the environmental integrity and socioeconomic importance of at least some aspects of sealing.” This was a naive point of view. When the ban was extended no thought was given to the consequences in the lives of 25,000 Inuit. The Inuit had just presented their testimonies to the Royal Commission. These were not heard before the EEC made their decision. In the US and Europe “…anti-sealing waged a ‘public relations battle’ to ‘capture southern hearts and minds’. “The milestones of this war were recorded by the contributions that reached the campaign coffers and the bags of pre-printed IFAW and Greenpeace postcards that inundated the desks of politicians.’ ‘Canada’s Inuit did not choose to be involved in the sealing controversy. To Inuit it was an issue between Qallunat – those Whites who took sealskins for money alone and those to whom this was wrong (Wenzel 1991:3).”

1987 The Macdonald Stewart Art Centre presented its touring exhibition Contemporary Inuit Drawings, the first survey exhibition of drawings by Inuit artists.

1989 First Inuit art exhibition in the National Gallery of Canada’s new building: Pudlo: Thirty Years of Drawing. Pudlo Pudlat attends opening.

1991 George W. Wenzel published Animal Rights, Human Rights: Ecology, Economy and Ideology in the Canadian Arctic. This research which began as a short journal article developed into a book over a ten year period. Much of the data gathered on the Inuit sealhunt was gathered in Clyde River, Baffin Island in the late 1980’s. The US Congress, antifur groups were other ‘sites’ of research. This is the most thorough, the most credible of all the research materials available on the sealhunt.

1992 Pangnirtung’s Uqqurmiut Inuit Artists Association opens its weave shop, built a new print shop and began releasing collections.

1994 Baker Lake Art Symposium, Baker Lake which included the opening of the exhibition Qamanittuaq: Where the River Widens.

1998 First Inuit art history survey textbook published Hessel, Ingo. Inuit Art. He described how more than 4,000 Inuit have made over one million works since the 1940s. (Hessel ix) 35,000 Inuit live in about 50 small communities in the North. (Hessel 1998:9)

1999 April 1, the First Government of Nunavut was formed under Paul Okalik. Over the next five years the Nunavut Government stablished a Unified Court system; Human Rights Act for Nunavut was passed by the Legislative Assembly; Created Inuit Impact Benefit Agreement on Territorial Parks in partnership with NTI; Established major crown corporations: Nunavut Housing Corporation and Qulliq Energy Corporation; Signed a Northern Co-operation Accord with the Northwest Territories and Yukon; Updated and created legislation and policies to reflect the specific needs of Nunavut; Negotiated a protocol with Nunavut Tunngavik Inc. on bilateral co-operation. A review of the protocol was conducted and, in light of experience, resulted in the government and NTI agreeing to conduct their working relations in accordance with Iqqanaijaqatigiit (Working Together.) (GN 2004).

2000 Edward Beauclerk Maurice was 87-years-old completing his book on his youthful experience in Canada’s North in the 1930s. He worried about the use of the word Eskimo instead of Inuit. His manuscript was already complete and when he was in the North Eskimo was the term used.

2001. In September 2001, “the Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples commenced hearings to develop An Action Plan for Change: Urban Aboriginal Youth . Upon examination of issues affecting urban Aboriginal youth in Canada, in particular, access, provision and delivery of services, policy and jurisdictional issues, employment and education, access to economic opportunities, youth participation and empowerment and other related matters, the Committee is expected to table its report no later than June 28, 2002. So far, the Committee has held seven meetings and heard evidence from witnesses of the Department of Human Resources Development Canada, the Privy Council Office, Statistics Canada and the Department of Justice Canada.” See SSCAP (2001) http://www.sen.parl.gc.ca/lpearson/htmfiles/hill/22_htm_files/v22_SenateStudy.htm

2001. Inuit elder, artist, cultural worker and activist, Mariano Aupilardjuk was honoured with an Aboriginal Achievement Award in 2001 for his contributions as a bridge between generations, Inuit governance, local residents, on how to use IQ in modern society. In local Rankin Inlet elementary and secondary schools, at NAC, across Canada, advises RCMP, facilitates community and pan-territorial healing, and works with youth to help them acquire land skills.

2002 Bernard Saladin d’Anglure translated Mitiarjuk Nappaaluk’s Sanaaq, a fictional account of a woman in Nunavik who was born in the 1930s.

2002 E/IS. 2002. “Etudes Inuit Studies: Contents of “Inuit and Qallunaaq Perspectives: Interacting Points of View”.” 26 1. http://www.fss.ulaval.ca/etudes-inuit-studies/lastissu.HTML

2003 “Climate change is eroding the role Inuit elders play in their communities because it makes their traditional knowledge unreliable, elders told researchers at a workshop on global warming last week in Kangiqsujuaq (Nelson 2003).”

2004 The ICC got the idea of petitioning the Commission from the compelling scientific evidence of the Artic Climate Impact Assessment (Watt-Cloutier 2004).

2004 Wayne Govereau, Population and Public Health, Dept. of Health and Social Services, Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut was investigator for the Nunavut. Dept. of Health and Social Service for a research project entitled, “Monitoring temporal trends of human environmental contaminants in the NWT and Nunavut : Inuvik and Baffin regions.” “The Nunavut Department of Health and Social Services with support from the Northern Contaminants Program is delivering a program which measures levels of environmental contaminants in the blood and hair of volunteer pregnant women from the Baffin region. The overall goal of this program is to establish a time trend of selected environmental contaminants in human blood and hair in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. The results from this study will strengthen national and international efforts to limit the global pollution that affects northern people. Information collected about lifestyle during pregnancy will help to explain relationships between lifestyle and exposure to environmental contaminants, and to promote healthy babies and pregnancies in Nunavut. The study will involve the recruitment of pregnant women in Iqaluit once they arrive to give birth. Women will be asked to answer some questions about lifestyle and diet during pregnancy. Participants will be asked to sign a consent form agreeing to provide a hair sample, a sample of their blood and blood from their umbilical cord after it has been cut. The blood sample will be collected during a scheduled blood draw, and will not involve and risk or discomfort beyond what is normally experienced. During the recruitment process, women can decide whether they wish to sign a consent form agreeing to also participate in Phase 2 of the study in 2005/2006. Phase 2 involves follow up with their infants at 6 months of age. This follow up will involve tests to assess if prenatal exposure to contaminants has effected infant development. Communication is an important part of this monitoring program. Communication activities will be ongoing with communities, stakeholders and participants throughout the program (ASTIS 2007).”

2004 Kativik Regional Government and Laval University signed an agreement resulting in the creation Nunivaat Nunavik statistics program which provides updated statistics and research reports. Nunivaat now has a database of information at www.nunivaat.org.

2005 “Over 100 dignitaries, family and friends were on hand at the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut as The Honourable Ann Meekitjuk Hanson was sworn in as the third Commissioner of Nunavut on April 21, 2005. In an emotional ceremony, Elders, the Premier of Nunavut, Members of the Legislative Assembly, federal representatives, and honored guests applauded as Ann Meekitjuk Hanson was appointed to the post. She was sworn-in officially and signed the oath of office with Senator Willie Adams presiding, as the representative of the Government of Canada, which officially appointed her to the post [. . .] Commissioner Hanson is the 3rd official Commissioner of Nunavut, following Helen Mamayaok Maksagak and Peter Taqtu Irniq (GN 2005 ).”

2005 Rodolfo Stavenhagen, special rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people of Canada reported to the Commission on Human Rights that, “In Nunavut, the existing social housing units are among the oldest, smallest and mostcrowded in Canada. There is a severe housing shortage in Nunavut that adversely affects the health of Inuit, in particular of children, and it is estimated that 3,500 new units are needed over the next five years. The overall health of Inuit continues to lag far behind that of other Canadians. Life expectancy is 10 years lower than the rest of Canada. Many health indicators are getting worse. Arctic research shows that changes in traditional diets lead to increased health problems,particularly of mental health, characterized by increased rates of depression, seasonal affective disorder, anxiety and suicide. Inuit leaders are deeply concerned that the housing, education,health and suicide situation have reached crisis proportions and are not being addressed by the federal Government (Stavenhagen 2005:#38-39).”

2006 Gérard Duhaime of Laval university, produced a socio-economic profile of Nunavik.

2007-03-29 Kirt Ejesiak of Iqaluit was chosen to represent Nunavut for the federal Liberals. “Ejesiak, a Fulbright Scholar, has a masters of public administration degree from Harvard, making him the first Inuk to hold a post-secondary degree from the American university. Before going to Harvard, he had served as an Iqaluit city councillor and deputy mayor, and was Premier Paul Okalik’s principal secretary.He is currently CEO and creative director of Uqsiq Communications, an Iqaluit-based multimedia communications firm, as well as managing partner of the Gallery by the Red Boat, an art gallery in Apex (CBC 2007).”

2007-09-25 Indian and Northern Affairs minister Chuck Strahl visited Iqaluit, Nunavut Tuesday, where he announced $17 million in new funding for ­International Polar Year projects. The money funds 10 research projects, and includes $7 million to study the impact of climate change on the Arctic tundra and $2.5 million to study the changing sub-Arctic treeline.

2007-10-04 A researcher with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Gary Stern, presenting at the northern contaminants workshop in Lake Louise, Alberta, admits that the levels of mercury particularly in the Arctic Ocean have risen over the last fifteen years and indeed have been linked to health problems such as birth defects and cancer. In spite of that however, he contends that the benefits of eating caribou, whale (beluga) or ring seals as a rich source of vitamins and nutrition are greater than the risks. He also admits that more studies must be done to reveal the sources of mercury contamination which are particularly high in Arctic birds, beluga and ringed seals (CBC 2007-10-05).

2007-09 Skills Information System Receives National Award

Data Shows Positive Changes for Nunavut Students

2007-10 Inuit Employment within Nunavut Government Increased to 50 per cent

Selected bibliography

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Comer, George. 1906. “Whaling in Hudson Bay, with notes on Southampton Island” in Laufer, B. (ed.) Boas Anniversary Volume: Anthropological Papers written in Honor of Franz Boas. New York: Stechert. pp. 475-484.

Freeman, M. 1976. Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Project, Vol. 3: Land Use Atlas. Ottawa: Dept. of Indian and Northern Affairs.

Berger, T. R. 1980. Report of the Commission on Indian and Inuit Health Consultation. Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada.

Berger, T. R. 1985. Village Journey: The Report of the Alaska Native Review Commission. New York: Hill and Wang.

Brice-Bennet, C. Ed. 1977. Our Footprints Are Everywhere: Inuit Land Use and Occupation in Labrador. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer.

Castellano, Marlene Brant. 1983. “Canadian Case Study: The Role of Adult Education Promoting Community Involvement in Primary Health Care.” Unpublished manuscript. Trent University.

Castellano, Marlene Brant. 1986. “Collective Wisdom: Participatory Research and Canada’s Native People.” Convergence. 19 (3):50-53.

HBC. 1920-. Beaver, A Magazine of the North, vol. 1-. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Hudson’s Bay Company. http://www.historysociety.ca/bea.asp?subsection=ext&page=his.

2001 [1975]. “Comments on Carving Soapstone by Aktug, Atoat and Pauloosie, The Beaver, Winnipeg: Hudsons’s Bay Company, Autumn 1975. Courtesy of The Beaver, Canada’s National History Society.” in North: Landscape of the Imagination, vol. V. Ottawa, ON: National Library of Canada. http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/2/16/h16-7500-e.html.

Bibliography. Interviewing the Elders: Perspectives on Traditional Law. http://www.nunavut.com/traditionalknowledge/vol2/references.html.

Blodgett, Jean and Bouchard, Marie. 1986. Jessie Oonark: A Retrospective. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery.

Boswell, Randy. 2003. “Unsung Arctic heroine.” in The Ottawa Citizen.

CBC. 2007. “Ejesiak given federal Liberal nod in Nunavut. ” 2007-03-29.

CBC. 2007-10-05. “Traditional food better despite pollutants, researchers say.” http://www.cbc.ca/canada/north/story/2007/10/05/northern-food.html

CMC. “Lost Visions, Forgotten Dreams Life and Art of an Ancient Arctic People.” Canadian Museum of Civilisation. http://www.civilization.ca/archeo/paleoesq/peinteng.html.

DIAND. 1975-. “Igloolik Research Centre.” http://pooka.nunanet.com/~research/igloolik.htm.

Duhaime, Gérard. 2006. “Socio-Economic Profile of Nunavik 2006.”

Ejesiak, Kirt; Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2005. “Animal Rights vs. Inuit Rights.” The Boston Globe. May 8, 2005.

Ejesiak, Kirt; Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2005. “Animal Rights vs. Inuit Rights.” The Boston Globe. May 8, 2005. >> Op-Ed. Kennedy School. Harvard University.

Eber, Dorothy. 1971. “Pitseolak: Pictures Out of My Life.” Toronto: Oxford University Press.Eber, Dorothy H. . 1985. When the Whalers were up North Montreal: : McGill-Queen’s University Press. Native and Northern Studies. .

Eber, Dorothy Harley. 2004. “Eva Talooki: Her Tribute to Seed Beads, Long-time Jewels of the Arctic.” Inuit Art Quarterly 19:12-17.

George, Jane. 2000. “Inuit lodge complaint over government dog extermination.” in Nunatsiaq News. Kuujjuaq.

GN Government of Nunavut. 2004. ” Pinasuaqtavut: 2004-2009:Our Commitment to Building Nunavut’s Future Working to improve the health, prosperity, and self-reliance of Nunavummiut).” http://www.gov.nu.ca/Nunavut/pinasuaqtavut/engcover.pdf

(GN 2005 ).
GN Government of Nunavut “ 2007. ᐋᒃᑑᐸ – October – Aktuupa.” http://www.gov.nu.ca/Nunavut/English/news/2007/oct/

Grygier, Pat Sandiford. 1994. A Long Way from Home: the Tuberlosis Epidemic among the Inuit. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Iglauer, Edith 1964. “Re Armour, Bill’s role in Baker Lake cultural industry in the early 1960s.” Macleans.

Iqallijuq, Rose and Johanasi Ujarak. 1998. “The Private and Public Performances of the Angakkut: Discoveries of starvation and cannibalism through ilimmaqturniq.” Pp. 159-162 in Cosmology and Shamanism: Interviewing Inuit Elders, edited by B. S. d’Anglure. Iqaluit, NU: Nunavut Arctic College.

King, David Paul. 2000. “The History of the Federal Residential Schools for the Inuit Located in Chesterfield Inlet, Yellowknife, Inuvik and Churchill, 1955-1970.” Theses Canada digitization project. Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada, 2000. ISBN 0612404757

Mitchell, Marybelle. 1996. From Talking Chiefs to a Native Corporate Elite: The Birth of Class and Nationalism among Canadian Inuit. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Nelson, Odile. 2003. “Climate change erodes Inuit knowledge, researches say: Change in weather, change in health.” Nunatsiak News. January 24, 2007.

Niven, Jennifer. “Ada Blackjack: A True Story of Survival in the Arctic.”

Oosten, Jarich, Frédéric Laugrand, and Wim Rasing. 1999. Perspectives on Traditional Inuit Law, vol. 12. Iqaluit, NU: Nunavut Arctic College. http://www.nunavut.com/traditionalknowledge/vol2/references.html.

Parker, John. 1996. Arctic Power: The Path to Responsible Government in Canada’s North. Peterborough: The Cider Press.

Patrtridge, Shannon. 2002. “A Social History of Film-Making in the North.” in Introduction to Northern-Centred Sociology, edited by M. Flynn-Burhoe. Iqaluit, NU. http://www.carleton.ca/~mflynnbu/shannon_partridge/.

Pauktuutiit. 1991. Arnait, the Views of Inuit Women on Contemporary Issues. Ottawa, ON. http://www.nunavut.com/traditionalknowledge/vol2/references.html.

Rideout, Denise. 2001. “Nunavut’s Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit group gets started.” in Nunatsiak News. Iqaluit, NU. http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut010228/nvt10202_08.html.

Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo 16:13.

Rowley, Graham. 1998. Cold Comfort: My Love Affair with the Arctic. Montreal/Kingston: McGill/Queen’s University Press. http://www.mqup.mcgill.ca/print_book.php?bookid=292.

Sissons, Jack. 1998. Judge of the Far North. The Memoirs of Jack Sissons. Toronto, ON. http://www.nunavut.com/traditionalknowledge/vol2/references.html.

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Stavenhagen, Rodolfo. 2005. “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people of Canada.” Commission on Human Rights. http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/chr/docs/61chr/E.CN.4.2005.88.Add.3.pdf.

SSCAP. 2001. Hearings to develop An Action Plan for Change: Urban Aboriginal Youth http://www.sen.parl.gc.ca/lpearson/htmfiles/hill/22_htm_files/v22_SenateStudy.htm

Steenhoven, Geert van den. 1958. Caribou Eskimo Law. Ottawa, ON: Department of Northern Affairs.

Tella, Subhas. 1986. “Precambrian Geology of Parts of Tavani, Marble Island, and Chesterfield Inlet Map Areas, District of Keewatin A Progress Report.” Ottawa, Canada: Geological Survey of Canada. ISBN 0660121131

Wachowich, Nancy, Apphia Agalakti Awa, Rhoda Kaukjak Katsak, and Sandra Pikujak Katsak. 1999. Saqiyuq: Stories from the Lives of Three Inuit Women. Montreal/Kingston: McGill/Queen’s University Press.

WAG. 1982. Eskimo Point/Arviat. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery.

Watt-Cloutier, Sheila. 2004. “Climate Change and Human Rights.” Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs. http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/viewMedia.php/prmTemplateID/8/prmID/4445.

Wenzel, George W. 1985. “Marooned in a Blizzard of Contradictions: Inuit and the Anti-Sealing Movement.” Etudes Inuit Studies. 9:1:77-92.

Wenzel, George W. 1991. Animal Rights, Human Rights: Ecology, Economy and Ideology in the Canadian Arctic. Toronto/Buffalo: University of Toronto Press. 206pp.

Tester, James and Peter Kulchyski. 1994. Tammarniit (Mistakes): Inuit Relocation in the Eastern Arctic 1939-63.Vancouver: UBC Press.

Tester, Frank James; McNicoll, Paule. 2003 [2004-06]. “Isumagijaksaq: mindful of the state: social constructions of Inuit suicide.” Social Science & Medicine. 58:12:2625-2636. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.09.021

Tester, Frank James; McNicoll, Paule. 2008-11. “A Voice of Presence: Inuit Contributions toward the Public Provision of Health Care in Canada, 1900–1930.” Histoire social/Social history. 41:82:535-561.

Tags: Medical policy, Canada, History, 20th century, Health and hygiene, Hudson’s Bay Company,

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